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Health Studies Lecture - 2.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 Plagues and People Lecture 2Parasitesorganism that grows feeds and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Sheltered inside the host uses the hosts resources to survive and replicate but does not provide any resources to help the host surviveo someone lives in your house uses all your resources food shelterbut does not pay rento They are not able to survive on their own so they use the host for nourishment and replication Parasites can be in different formsVirusultimate microparasitesmaller than bacteria neither cells not organisms can only reproduce within their host Its a collection of genetic material that is engulfed in a protein They can only reproduce within host They can only be seen in an electron microscope Examples of the smallest micro parasites Parasites that are cells bacteriums and protozoas unicellular one celled parasites Are usually seen with a light microscope Macroparasitescomposed of many cells cycles through transmission stages eggs and larvae which pass into the external environmentUsually dont multiply within the hostbut they mostly use the host for multiplication but also to cycle through transmission stages Use the host to lay eggs for instance Transmission stages of eggs and larvae which transmits its way into the external environment and find its way to impact the host once againAre largerand can be seen using the naked eye An example of a macro parasite is the plasmodiumWhich is the parasite that causes malaria Flies and ticks are larger and are able to cause harm to humansMacro parasites can live on surfaces but they can also live inside the human body HIV virus lives inside the host human bodySome of them have complex and simple life cycles Malaria is an example where the main host is humansFor a disease to occur transmission has to happen and the disease has to move from one host to another Transmissionmovement of a parasite from host to hostIncubation period interval of time required for development of a disease in a host Time needed for the disease to develop inside the host The parasite or the pathogen is replicating or doing something You do not see the symptoms of the disease The person doesnt feel or look sick but replication is occurring inside the body and symptoms will be seen later Latent Period a period of time where a person or host will be exposed to a pathogen and there is nothing happening in between and after which the person experiences symptoms of the disease The difference between the two is that within incubation period there is a period of activity that is occurring
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