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Lecture 5

Plagues and people lecture 5.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

PG276 283HISTORY TB Present in human population since antiquityEvidence of TB in Egyptian mummies in 2400 BCTerm tuberculosis was not used earlier onPhthsis or consumption used at the peak of the disease in London EnglandHomer 800 BCPhtsis as described by Hippocrates is the form of TB known as pulmonary TB460 BCHippocrates disease was due to evil air but did not consider it contagiousAristotle 384322 BCsuggested that TB may be due to bad and heavy breath Deformities in the spine Pulmonary form of tuberculosisselectorloubousskin enlargements in the lymph nodes called schofulaTB was documented in Egypt India and China as early as 5000 3000 and 2300 years ago respectivelyTypical skeletal abnormalitiesTB was limited to animals in prehistoric times 80004000 BCdue to domestication of animals the disease was able to spread to humans more quickly TB spread to the middle east Greece and India through nomadic tribes through animals via contaminated milkthe origins or method of transmission is unknownTB epidemics likely form changes in the host population and the environment host environment agenttuberculosis pathogen has believed to have existed from long agoThe changes in the host population and the environment was believed to be responsible for the spread of TBTB pathogen is believed to have existed from long ago and it became more epidemic in humansdue to the changes in the environmentwhich perpetuated the virulenceRisk factors related to the host populationClaims of royal supernatural powers during the Middle Ages AD 5001500During the middle ages monarchies started to form and they existedtheir were claims of royal supernatural powers claimed to be healing people from tuberculosisthe type of TB that they were claiming to heal people from was the lymph type of TB the scrofula This was called the Kings evil or royal touching They lined up the people who had TB or scrofula and a touching ceremony was performed to help heal the patientsWe now know that TB can become dormant for a while hence these ceremonies where the king or queen touched the patient made signs of the cross and gave them a gold coin was believed to cure them form TBQueen Anne of England was believed to be responsible for helping prevent TB the royal touch was a ceremony to cure people from TB1546 Fracastorious describes Modern Theory of Contagiono TB phtisis was caused by an invisible germ in the lungs can be transmitted from one person to another 1629 Consumptionleading cause of death in London raised Europe many people were sick it was thought that 100 percent of the population was due to tuberculosis Approximately 20 of all death was due to tuberculosis 1679 D Sylvius discovers the lung nodules that are now known as tubercules o The lung nodules indicated the presence of tuberculosis1720 Benjamin Martenspeculates that TB may be communicable from one individual to another
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