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Smallpox lecture.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Smallpox lecture Disease originsOld world disease and its an indiscriminate disease and doesnt discriminate against age gendersex etc anybody is equally susceptible to getting smallpox a lot of people have the tendency to get smallpoxHumans acquired this disease from other forms of pox like diseases in different animals and this is how it crossed the species barrier10000 BC first agricultural settlements in NE Africa and spread to India by means of Ancient Egyptian merchants Earliest evidence on Egyptian mummies 15701805 BC Pharaoh Ramses V died 1156 BCpockmarks Described in 1122 BC in China and is mentioned in ancient texts of IndiaKnown in Greece and Rome and wasnt a major threat until 180 ADDuring the plague of antoinine was believed that smallpox and malaria both contributed to the decline of the Roman EmpireIntroduced in Europe in the fifth century and was a frequent epidemic during the Middle Agesth 16 century became a serious disease in England and Europe There are pockmarks cavities that are left over from the disease this is evident in the mummified head in Ramses V Effects of SmallpoxPlague of antonineresulted in the decline of the Roman Empire in 1008 and started in Mesopotamia when returning soldiers brought it back to Italy th New world in the 16 century introduced by the Spanish and Portuguese and lead to the decimation of the population Fall of the empires of the Aztecs and the Incas Contributed to the settlement of the N America by French and English 1967In the eastern coast of North America the disease was introduced by early settlers and declined native population so it contributed to the settlement of North America by French and English and made the Indians a lot weaker to resist colonization Smallpox was believed to be the first incidence of biological warfare Commander of the British forces of North America suggested that the deliberate use of smallpox to demolish the native population They purposely infected blankets and gave it to the natives and set up an epidemic along the Indians and this was done to win the war and to gain control of the den Slave trade bringing African people to contribute to the dwindling labour force These are the different elements involved in the spread of smallpoxEtiologyVirus Genus Orthopoxvirus family Poxviridae It has 200 genes that form this virusCommon name variola virus Variola major more virulent with a mortality of about 30 and variola minor less virulent 2 mortality rate Other orthopox virus genus also include the monkeypox is virtually indistinguishable from smallpox but slightly less cowpox camelpox chickenpox and ectrmedia mousepox viruses Variola minor mortality rate is less than 2 in unvaccinated personsMortality rate for Variola major3 in vaccinated individuals and 3050 in unvaccinated people Tends to be much higher in naive populations
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