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Health Studies
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Caroline Barakat

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MEASLESthHistorical Perspective 7 C historical confusion bw smallpox chicken pox etc Earliest description attributed to Persian dr Rhazes 910 AD noticed pupil gets smaller when exposed to lightclinically separated smallpoxmeaslesbelieved both proceeded from same causefalse Prevailing theoryred rash represented the mothers menstrual blood that accumulated during pregnancy Measles welcomed as way for child to rid himself of the socalled poison Measles AKA rubeola hard measles red measles 9day measles morbilli little disease hasbah Origins of measles misellus or misellamiserable thModern History 1617 C 1670Thomas Sydenhams Father of clinical observation observed clinical features via description of his sons attack clearly separate measles from smallpox and recognized other complications such as cancrum oris destruction of tissues around mouthnasal cavity and encephalitis inflammation of brain also caused by measles herpes etc Scientists rejected the mothers blood theory 1757Francis Home demonstrated the infective naturesucceeded in transmitting measles using blood from an infected child in 810 child participants Peter Ludwig Panum 18201885 Sent by Danish government to investigate an epidemic in Faeroe Isles in 1846 bw Norwegian seaN Atlantic ocean following 65yrs of being diseasefree 1846 Approximately 7800 inhabitants102 died of measles Panum conducted the first epidemiological study FaeroeIslesideal geographic location for an epidemiological study cool temp mountainous coastal house clusters Arrival of a boat noted in the local calendar Visits from the Danish mainland were rare but visitors always recorded Epidemic originated fr a single seaman from Copenhagen On arrival he had not recovered completely was infectious Panum followed the course of the epidemic Context imp bc couse of infection was unintervened He was able to establish 4 important facts1Rash appears 1214 days after contact with an infected person2Infectivity is greatest 34 days before rash appears 3Contagious nature of diseasevia respiratory route of transmission air droplets NOT of miasmatic originbad airnd4Lifelong immunityinhabitants over 64 yrs didnt fall sick childhood disease lifelong immunity didnt fall sick at 2 epidemic thRecent History 20 C 1910Hektoen 18631951proved measles is present in blood 1963Enders 18971985 military turned scientist isolated virus and produced vaccine 1969Discovery of relationship between measles and a rare degenerative diseasesubacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain inflammation occurs 1 in 100000 develops 5 to 10 years after acute measles Etiology Family Paramyxoviridae contains RNA GenusMorbillivirus Infects respiratory system Highly communicable transmitted by direct contact fr nosethroat secretions of infected persons primarily by droplet spread clings to air droplets inhaled by ppl so it cud be indirect Indirect contact via soiled articles airborne transmission Incubation period 714 days Period of communicability 4d before until 4d after rash appears Highly contagious one of the most highly communicable diseases Virus can survive drying on microdroplets in the air
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