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lectures 1-8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 1 Definitions Parasites: organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Virus: ultimate micro-parasite, smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only reproduce within their host Macroparasites: composed of many cells; does not multiply in host, instead cycles through transmission stageseggs and larvaewhich pass into the external environment Transmission: the sending or passing of something, such as a message or disease from one place or person to another Incubation period: the interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period: seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence: capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections: animal infections that can be transmitted to humans What are the main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease? Host: (usually a person) immunity, genetics, nutrition Environment: some whether conditions dont allow for diseases to take place Agent: biological, physical, chemical (type of bacteria) Modes of Disease Transmission Direct occurs through direct contact, e.g. from person to person Indirect through a common route vector, e.g. contaminated air water, mosquito Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungi Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter Types of disease outbreaks Three main types: 1) Endemic usual occurrence of a given disease within a given geographical area 2) Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy in a defined region 3) Pandemic worldwide epidemic Definition of Plagues In the past, all disease outbreaks were referred to as plagues Derived from Latin word plaga which means to strike a blow that wounds Today, we refer to such a disease outbreak as an epidemic, comes from Greek word epi (among) and demos (the people) Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas Historical Perspective Hunter & Gather society: - Society was a lot healthier because there was less contact with people - Scarce population - Hunters never stayed in the same place, they were constantly moving around - Barely no diseases Agriculture Revolution: - People started settling down - Had bigger families (more children= free labour) - People began being more connected - no bathrooms or hygiene resolutions - Diseases started to increase e.g. Black Plaque Globalized Societies: - Better transportation such as airplanes, trains, cars helped increase diseases to travel - Also helped increase transmission e.g. Sars Technological Advancements: Certain present day new products that are created may result in creating diseases. e.g. Toxic Shock Syndrome Plaques of Antiquity o Dates back from 5000 BC to 700 AD o Characterized by parasites with long lived transmission stages (e.g. eggs, larva, ...) o Transmitted from person to person contact. The Pharaohs Plaque Evidence that it dates back to 1900 BC Thought to first have appeared in the Nile Valley of Egypt Agriculture, the inundation of the Nile, eventually irrigation created favorable conditions that promoted the spread of the disease Disease now known as snail fever or blood fluke disease endemic hematuria schistosomiasis European invasion of Egypt (1799 1801) resulted in the first European experience with plaques The Plaque of Athens Occurred in 430BC an epidemic that started in Ethiopia and gradually moved into Egypt raged for about two years identity of the disease is not known characterized by fever, pustules and a rash of extremities destroyed fighting power of the Athenian navy The Roman Fever Roman Empire was established 27 BC - it had a series of colonies Vast trade network emerged Malaria became prevalent Thought to result from the bad air due to vapors released from marshes in the summer Epidemics occurred every 5 to 8 years Plague had an effect on the early Christian Church The Antonine Plaque AD 166 - brought to the Roman Empire by Roman troops from Mesopotamia Made its way to Europe Symptoms: high fever, inflammation of the mouth and throat, thirst, diarrhea, postules that appeared after 9 days Identity of the plague not known likely to be the first record of smallpox The Cyprian Plaque 250 AD believed to have originated in Ethiopia, moved to Egypt, and made its way to the Roman colonies of North Africa. Justinian Plaque First pandemic of the Bubonic plague Arrived in 541 in Constantine the capital of the Roman Empire in the east Raged Europe, North Africa and the Middle East until 757 1 million people died Attempts at Control & Prevention Quarantine isolation of the sick Pest houses special hospitals where inflicted are isolated Quick burials Burning of clothes and bedding Emphasis on studies of human anatomy Changes to farming from growing of crops to raising of sheep for wool Bigger ships with smaller crews New diversified economy
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