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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 Chapter 1 – The Nature of Plagues Peter Turner – Legionnaires - World War 2 veteran (65 years old) - Summer of 1976 - Fell ill with high fever, chills, headache and muscle aches - Few days later had a dry cough, chest pains, shortness of breath, vomiting and diarrhea - Lungs filled with fluid and pus a few days later - 221 people ill, 33 died - Died from pneumonia which later turned into an outbreak called Legionnaires disease - Aspiration of bacteria (called Legionella) Mary Benton - TSS - Suffering from overeating - Pain every time she went to use the bathroom - Had nausea, chills, diarrhea, and sore throat, and had a rash all over - Died of multiorgan failure – low blood pressure, hepatitis, renal insufficiency, and internal blood clots - Vaginal sample contained the bacterium staphylococcis aureus - Had new disease TSS (toxic shock syndrome) - Symptoms of disease  Each case began with vomiting and high fever, followed by lightheadedness and fainting, the throat felt sore, and the muscles ached.  A day later, a sunburn-like rash appeared, and the eyes became bloodshot.  Within 3-4 days victims suffered confusion, fatigue, weakness, thirst and a rapid pulse; the skin became cool and moist; and breathing became rapid.  This was followed by a sudden drop in blood pressure; if it remained low enough for a long period, circulatory collapse produced shock - TSS is a gender specific disease as it was linked to the use of certain types of tampons (those containing cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose with polyester foam) SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory System) - Started in February 2003 - Started with a 64 year old Chinese man who became ill with fever, dry cough, sore throat and headache - Suffered respiratory failure and died - Those who came in contact with him during his illness had died days after him and it spread - 2 ndcase was his brother in law who was in contact with him for only 10 hours, and died 3 dard later th - 3 case was a nurse who treated him; 4 was a businessman who stayed in the same hotel - In 4 months there were over 8000 cases and 800 deaths HLTA01 Parasites - Unable to survive on their own and require another living being for their nourishment - Parasitism is the intimate association of two different kinds of organisms wherein one benefits (the parasite) at the expense of the other (the host) and the parasites often harm their hosts - Some live inside the body(tapeworms, hookworms) - Some live on the surface (ticks and chiggers) - Not every host will be infected. Some people may be immune or not susceptible because of a genetic abnormality or the absence of some critical dietary factor - They produce lots of offspring, so have greater probability of reaching a host and setting up an infection - Transmission: the movement of a parasite from host to host, whether by direct or indirect means -
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