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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Plagues of Antiquity - Bubonic Plagues.docx
Lecture 2 Plagues of Antiquity - Bubonic Plagues.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Barakat- Haddad

Lecture 2 Sept 20/12 PLAGES OF ANTIQUITY & THE BLACK PLAGUE  Plagues of Antiquity o The Pharaoh’s Plague o The Plague of Athens o The Roman Fever o The Antonine Plague o The Cyprian Plague o Justinian Plague  Bubonic Plague Introduction  Predominant diseases during hunter-gatherer society o High transmission rates o Macro parasitic; did not require vectors o Sexually transmitted diseases  Move to agriculture and the emergence of epidemic diseases o Emergence of epidemic disease  Emergence of cities - urban life o As populations increased and flourished resulted in crowding disease Plagues of Antiquity  5000 BC to 700 AD  Characterised by parasites with long lived transmission stages o Those that can go through stages of transmission (ex. egg, larvae, etc.) and they can impact humans because of the transmission stages  Person to person contact. The Pharaoh’s Plague  1900 BC  Nile Valley of Egypt o Due to agriculture and irrigation  The water became stagnant and therefore allowed for development of disease and the spread  Snail fever or blood fluke disease / endemic hematuria / schistosomiasis  Transmission stages o Microscopic o Resulted in worms that would enter through the skin and find their way into the blood stream and clog the blood cells  1799 – 1801 Europeans invade Egypt o first experience of the Europeans with the Pharaoh’s Plague  It is not wiped out and continues to infect 200 million people a year o Currently, 1 million deaths annually Lecture 2 Sept 20/12 Plague of Athens  The production of wine was very common during that time and also in the shipping and commercial transaction o Trade was very common for that civilization  In the end of the dark ages two powerful states emerged in the Greek Civilization known as Sparta and Athens o 431 BC a war broke out between these two states that lasted for 27 years o Even though the Spartans were greater in number, the Athenians were much better at ship building and overall better skilled so the Athenians were expected to win the war  However the Plague of Athens did not allow that to happen  In 430 B.C. there was an epidemic in Ethiopia o Route: Ethiopia, into Egypt, then brought into Athens  A lot of deaths occurred as result of the plague, several of which were members of the navy  The Athenians were defeated as a result  High death rates (1/4 Athenians died) including ``Pericles``  Identity of this plague - unknown to this day The Roman Fever  Roman Empire established in 27 BC o Consisted of a series of colonies in various places  Consisted of a vast trade network therefore agricultural development was big during that time leading to severe changes to the environment o Series of deforestations and soil erosion  These environmental changes also favoured certain mosquito vectors to grow which allowed for the introduction of a malignant form of malaria  Malignant for of malaria became prevalent o The Roman marshes became areas that people did not want to enter because they knew of they did they were at risk of getting that disease and eventually dying from it  Thought to result from ‘bad air’ (Preliminary thought about malaria) o Through that vapours that were released from the marshes in the summer that resulted in people getting sick with this disease  Epidemics every 5 to 8 years that occurred in different places o Cyclical in nature  Reduced life expectancy around the Roman marshes o 20 years  2000 years Rome was home to the Roman fever Lecture 2 Sept 20/12 3 PLAGUES THAT RESULTED IN THE COLLAPSE OF ROME The Antonin Plague  AD 166 o Believed that the plague was brought to the Roman Empire by Roman troops from Mesopotamia  Route: Mesopotamia  into Roman Empire  Europe  Symptoms o High fever o Inflammation of the mouth and throat o Thirst o Diarrhea o Pustule that appeared after 9 days  Identity of the plague not known – likely to be the first record of smallpox  At it’s peak it is believed to have killed 2000 people in Rome The Cyprian Plague  250 AD  Originated in Ethiopia  Egypt  Roman colonies of North Africa.  Pandemic that lasted 16 years  Symptoms: o Vomiting o Diarrhea o Gangrenes of hands and feet  Based on the symptoms, it could have been measles or smallpox The Justinian Plague  First pandemic of the Bubonic plague (3 pandemics of the bubonic plague; the Justinian Plague was the first)  Arrived in 541 A.D. in Constantine (Capital of the East Roman Empire)  Raged Europe, North Africa and the Middle East until 757 A.D. (Laste 2 centuries) 
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