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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 CHAPTER 02 – PLAGUES, THE PRICE OF BEING SEDENTARY BECOMING HUMAN, BECOMING PARASITIZED: - Generally accepted that Africa was the cradle of humanity - Earliest evidence of hominids (animals ancestral to modern humans and not closely related to other monkeys and apes) is found in Africa - Evidence comes from unearthed bones and teeth (fossils) - Australopithecus anamenis  oldest ancestor lived in Africa for about 4.2 million years ago - They spent time in trees - They come from species called A.afarensis - When A.afarensis descended from the trees and stood upright, it not only affected posture, but changed lifestyles and diets and disease patterns - Descent from trees freed them from some disease but allowed for the acquisition of new ones - Ex. in treetops, they would be bitten by mosquitoes carrying parasites acquired from other animals living in the canopy - Ex. at ground level they would be exposed to other airborne blood suckers such as ticks and flies oreven different food sources and contaminated water - 3 millions years ago climate change in Africa - Dense woodlands replaced by open grassy habitats and savannahs - More hominids died at this time EATING HABITS: - With meat eating came an increase is parasitism - As nomadic hunters encountered new prey, they met new parasites and new vectors of parasites - Result: zoonoses  animal infection transmitted to humans - Parasites in an animal can be acquired from the wild animals that they killed and scavenged - When humans butcher theses animals they meat might have parasites such as anthrax and tetnus bacteria, roundworm, and variety of intestinal tapeworms H.HABILIS REPLACED WITH H.ERECTUS: - H.Habilis replaced A.afarens and was more smart (carved tools) - 1.6 million years ago H.Habilis was relaced by homo erectus - Closer to modern humans in body sized and somewhat larger-brained than H.Habilis - Eating harder parts of animals via grinding crushing, splitting, cutting them  developed extension of hands and teeth - When population of H.erectus left Africa, some of their parasites went with them (but only those that can be transmitted directly from person to person) - As H.erectus encountered new environments they were subjected to new parasites and with the increasing of human population living in a more restricted geog
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