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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

2012-11-06 HLTC05H3 F Lecture 8 Film Assignment: Come up with a question that is much more than a descriptive question that is critical that can analyze the material being taught. Two points will be awarded as bonus points Lecture: • HIV-AIDS: a social disease of human made factors • Disease that is a pandemic and is the most significant health problem for human is the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries o Opportunistic infection contraction becomes a concern • Creation of “risk groups”= the issue of global poverty between and within nations o HIV/AIDS need to be looked at through a social and cultural lens that has been “controlled” but continues to being a problem  However, rate of new infections for HIV/AIDS have been controlled • Figures for HIV/AIDS are stabilizing (not dramatically decreasing) in terms of new infections • Disease found in every part of the world o Africa is the most affected with 2 million newly infected in 2010  Variation throughout the continent  Variation also within the countries that may be due to individual SES but also other social determinants of health o Has led to life expectancy is countries in Africa to 40 years  People in their prime age are dying of HIV/AIDS which is a toll on economic development  Social consequence= 14 million orphaned kids that need to be taken care of by extended family that have limited resources which leads to other long-term social consequences (i.e. physical and sexual abuse, poverty, deprivation, stigma) o Syndemic with TB o Bacteria resistant to antibiotics for TB o Similar problem could arise w/HIV/AIDS which could be resistant to antiretroviral • Syndemic= co-infection relationship (1)--- microparasitism o Also consider a syndemic as an interaction between a disease and a social condition (2)--- macroparasitism  Macroparasitic nature of culture= how the rich exploit the poor and marginalized groups is an example of macroparasitism • Differential access to resources in stratified societies creates macroparasitism o HIV/AIDS and TB are anthropogenic (that has emerged and re-emerged respectively due to factors mentioned in the Third Epidemiological Transition)  HIV/AIDS= semian virus (found in monkeys) • Monkeys were considered bush meat and the disease could have jumped from monkeys to humans through this behaviour of eating bush meat or removing them from their habitat o Zoonotic infections (eg. swine flu, avian flu) • Emergence of disease as a human and social factor that is recognized by public health o In North America, where in the early 80s where significant numbers of white homosexual men that have access to healthcare and doctors that have a capability to recognize and diagnose the new disease (HIV/AIDS) [deconstruction of emergence] • The animal to human transition could take thousands of mutations and that one sporadic mutation maybe problematic • But the human to human transition is increasingly problematic because it is a more of direct risk based on mutation of virus that is fitted for the human species o Behavioural factors  Medical component of reuse of needles by doctors and nurses • Patients who are hemophiliacs who need blood transfusions and doctors and organizations did not screen the blood being donated and contracted the disease through that method • What are the ultimate factors that explain the spread of HIV/AIDS • Government action, media interest, budget cuts and other social-cultural factors played a role in the social development of HIV/AIDS o How HIV/AIDS became associated with a sub- population that made it easy to ignore which allowed the disease to spread; allowed structural violence to become entrenched  Disease of lack of social and economic influence o Main determinant of HIV/AIDS is impoverishment and that makes you more susceptible to stress  Culture and material objects of culture protect from stressors o HIV and poverty go hand in hand with structural violence which is clearly seen in the differences in the distribution of HIV/AIDS and the outcome of how well the patient will cope with the disease and life expectancy • Structural adjustment programs (SAPs) o Role of neoliberal market economics o The role of urbanization (main risk environment)  Increased HIV risk environment because the inner city is the area of poverty, poor housing, criminal activity, employment instability and lack of social support  AIDS is therefore also an opportunistic disease because it thrives on certain social conditions and hierarchies that allow it to thrive • Ult
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