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Health Studies
R Song

2012-11-20 HLTC05H3 F Lecture 10: Inequality and Childhood • How inequality affects children? • Children are the most useful indicator of social inequality and disease in a society in terms of when measuring social determinants of health o Most sensitive to change and inequality and require protection and nurturance from adults in their lives o Improving the lives of a future generation • Inequalities in childhood reflect broadly of class, race, and gender divisions that are entrenched in societies; various forms of structural violence o Inequalities can be lessened or intensified among children (i.e. the presence or lack of social services and good or poor resource allocation) • Child poverty o Canada’s world standing in child poverty is 13.3% and is not in the top 10 countries with lessened rates of child poverty o Global rates of poverty affect childhood health especially for children under the age of 5 with a majority of them being neonatal death  Diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition and coinfection is syndemic  Diarrhoeal disease and malnutrition of children and infants has a lot to do with maternal health  Increased susceptibility to syndemics because of environments that are conducive to infectious diseases  Higher rates of morbidity and mortality in developing and third world countries o Maternal health and income and looking at the poverty levels of women is a reflection of child poverty due to SES in women • Childhood requirements (look @ slide 7) o All aspects of the environment  Nutrition  Protection (etc.) • Requirements that go beyond the family and enter into the community o Child growth and development  Infancy= period of brain development (which may go to 7 years of age due to brain development) • Nutritional support • Protection from disease • Aspects of SES in infancy  Adolescence= period of puberty and bodily changes as well as brain growth • aspects of SES in adolescence  Height and stature (SES and class) as measures of growth and development • Stature as a measure of growth and development= between populations there are differences in that measure o Differences found in the archaeological record; groups include:  Rural india  Ladino= increased growth and development in height based on stature more than other groups; reflection of inequalities in other groups  African  Maya o How plastic the human body is human social factors.  Looking at the dental development and eruption  To look at defiency or delay in growth and eruption of teeth • Development of enamel hypoplasia which is an indicator of insufficient enamel at some point throughout the development period o Development Milestones (look @ slide 10) • Human brain growth and Function o Look @ slide 11= the importance of brain growth in infancy and genetic and environmental insults may inhibit or slow the development, growth and function of the brain • SES and intellectual development is heavily affected by the social environment of children o Malnutrition and Intellectual Development  Brown and Pollitt 1996  Earlier and current assumptions  Micronutrients= quality versus quantity  The supplementation played a much more significant role than without the supplementation • Proof that protein supplementation as an intervention played a significant role in mitigating the issue of child poverty • However it is important to address ultimate factors of child poverty • Poverty, Child Health and Behaviour o Psychosocial environment that affects children  Can be looked at a more micro-level in home environments  Overall family health (i.e. parent suffering from depression or chronic illness) • Parental or family neglect and the affect it has on the brain and development of behaviour  Children are much more affected by lack of play spaces, exposure to environmental pollutants and physical violence in the neighbourhoods  The issue of school and whether the c
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