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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

2012-10-30 HLTC05H3 F Lecture 7: Syndemics--- Culture and Biology Intertwined The essay can now be a group essay and will result in the same mark being allotted to all group members and page limit must be maintained and arguments must be concise and organized. Sources must be print sources and peer-reviewed sources. Quality of citations. Do not cite lectures, go back to original document. Use the AAA style for citations and references cited. Questions can be used as subheadings, but just don’t list the questions then answer them try to create a flow between questions. AVOID RUN- ON SENTENCES! Break up paragraphs according to topic or sub-topic. Find appropriate external sources (3-5) to answer questions from the movies. For this essay, write in third person perspective. • Epidemiological polarization= increasing number of people that are on the bottom rung of resource distribution • Syndemics reflect the interaction between culture and biology o Excess burden of disease= for example HIV and TB; illness manifestation is much more (increased morbidity) than what a normal person suffering from either HIV or TB because the diseases and the symptoms are worse making the experience worse o Structural violence allows coinfection and syndemics in health to thrive o Violence victimization o Interacting conditions of diseases that are synergistic o SAVA= substance abuse, violence and AIDS o Population level= two or more epidemics of disease at the same time that affect a population due to various factors o Biological level= biological synergism; individual w/in the population where biological interaction (direct or indirect) of diseases (i.e. genetic intermingling) o Social context level= the route cause; biocultural interaction and the effect of social conditions on morbidity and burden of disease in biological expression • Poverty is a robust determinant of health inflicts different (social) determinants of health o Malnutrition= immune system impairment; cumulative life effects o Overcrowding o Poor ventilation in poor housing o Reduced ability to adhere to treatment plans due to residential instability o Impoverished situations leading to circumstances of non-compliance o Stigmatization= marginalization of groups based on poverty o Racism o Sexism o Ostracism o Stress= can lead to greater syndemical interactions; the issue of prolonged stress and increased structural violence which can lead stress in individuals o Deeply entrenched poverty strains the body and its ability to protect and heal itself; leading to cracks in the biological integrity of the body • Syndemics are anthropogenic (human-made) o The importance of understanding historica
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