HLTC07_Lec 4: very detailed, near-verbatim

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTC07 Lecture 4: PY Date: Midterm Oct 19: 7-9PM Slide 2: Disease and Injury Classification and Disease Surveillance From the manual, go to online tool, go over the modules to get familiar with, not a medical professional and not for coding; get familiar with the concepts Disease identification, classification and surveillance Lecture Outline: o Disease Classification Purpose, principals, diff dimensions of disease o International Classification of Disease ICD-10 (most current) o Classification of Mental Disorders o Classification of injuries o Disease Surveillance How is it generally undertake from local to global scale? Slide 3: Disease Classification - Purpose Classification is putting things in order = essential for science and it defines what the universe is made out of; we study science via classification and for diseases its not different o Classify to make sense of what is happening, altho theres differences in how diseases manifest and how humans react to certain diseases o But in general, theres common symptomology which classifies it under certain category Main reasons why we classify diseases: o 1) To alert health authorities to the emergence of a health problem Ex) If a health official reads that theres an increase in # of cases of SARS (etc;) something needs to be done about it o 2) To provide info about disease frequency in order to assist HCPs in planning, operations, or evaluation of certain programs Ex) We do have a program for the flu, flu surveillance; we look at cases; then see if the system enough, what needs to be changed? How do we evaluate it to make it better? o 3) To allocate resources; need to know what were dealing with, the frequency, is it decreasing/increasing; need to allocate appropriate resources (Health Care workers, programs, hospitals) Facilities for treatment and prevention o 4) To inform on where funds need to be used in the most useful way Certain funds for certain diseases Now, weve moved more away from funding infectious diseases to more funding towards chronic diseases But there are also advocates that say there are newly emerging infectious disease b/c of resistance, anti-biotics; so need funding for that So, look at changes that may be possible? What are the changes that can be made to make sure that funds are more useful? 1 HLTC07 Lecture 4: PY Date: Do we need to take funds away from chronic disease planning and prevention and put it towards infectious diseases? Is this where it would be most useful? o 5) To help in understanding disease pattern By showing some way to display and report disease patterns in a systematic way When we classify diseases and theres a standardization in terms of what diseases were looking to classify and then reporting and displaying the data in a systemized way Then can look at comparative reports; whether its comparative among diff places or comparative wrt temporality (time) Really impt to provide info in systematic way These are the 5 main purposes for disease classification; other purposes may fall w/in these categories or add onto these categories Slide 4: Principles of Disease Classification There are 3 main principles when classifying diseases reached consensus on this 3 Rules of Disease Classification: o 1) Classification of diseases must have a category for every disease If not, then a new category will be created for it Some single diseases are represented by individual categories but can also have other categories that group several diseases o 2) There must be no overlap between the categories If a disease is its own category then thats where it would fall But if its not in its own category, then it may fall under other types of diseases No disease can be placed in 2 diff categories at the same time; otherwise, it would lead to double-count, which we dont want when were looking at disease classification o 3) There must be at least one disease for each category So no category is left empty Slide 5: Dimensions of Disease Health (WHO): a state of physical, mental and social well-being and in the absence of disease/infirmity No internationally agreed upond definition of disease Disease defined thru set of dimensions: o Symptomatology manifestation Where did it start? Where youve been? Symptoms? Does anyone else have these symptoms? Looking at patterns of symptoms o Anatomy Is there a reason why this could happen? Is there a reason why the person keeps sneezing (allergens, flue etc;) 2 HLTC07 Lecture 4: PY Date: But knowing the anatomy of the organism, the organ-organ system thats primarily affected by those symptoms o Histology Changes in the tissues of a specific organ Ex) diagnosis of cancer o Etiology Underlying explanatory mechanism Ex) Infection by virus; Dr. OZ recent infection of bubonic plague of 7 yr old in Colorado how she was diagnosed with it? Buried dead squirrel, left sweater beside squirrel and she picked it up and tied around waist Bites around waist quick diagnosis where fleas bit her What is it that could have happened? What led to this? The bug bites were etiological cause; showed which way it could have happened o Course and outcome Of a health-related matter When did this start? What happened as a result of that? In order to figure out whats causing that certain disease o Age of onset Diseases are diff; some occur in child, some only in adults Some are there when youre a child but dont manifest until youre older (ex: arrhythmia) o Severity/extent Diseases may change; may increase/decrease in severity/extent Heart disease may worsen with exertion/physical activity o Treatment response Trial and error; these are the symptoms and youre asked to take it see if it works or not o Linkage to intrinsic (genetic) factors Very impt Knowing more about genotype/phenotype of an individual could indicate what the person may have o Gender o Linkage to interacting environmental factors o Other factors Ex) related to pregnancies; may become diabetic during pregnancy but goes away after Ex) old age: dementia, AD Disease classification is generally based on all of these dimensions of disease put together First point of contact for disease diagnosis = primary care physician (or you do it yourself) o Not a lot of fragmentation in Canada; physician to specialist health records are kept 3
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