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Anna Walsh (54)

Chapter 6 Textbook Notes

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Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Chapter 6- Aging of the Internal Organ Systems Cardiovascular System Basic Anatomy and Physiology Main transportation system Sends supplies such as fluids, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and antibodies to the tissues in the body and also removes waste products like carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions Composed of : heart, blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins and venules) and blood Arteries- carry blood away from heart Veins- carry blood to the heart Blood is composed of: water, red and white blood cells and platelets; as well as, fat globules, carbohydrates, and proteins It is perfused by: gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) Blood also carries electrolytes and helps maintain acidbase balance Also carries, hormones, neurotransmitters and other peptides that are necessary for homeostasis, cognition, movement and other functions of the body Heart is the in the center of the circulatory system; located behind the chest wall in a canted position with the midsection somewhat to the left of the breastbone; enclosed in a sac called the pericardium Left and right sides have two upper chambers (atria); atria are thin walled: collect blood Left and right lower chambers (ventricles); thicker walls and more muscular for long distance pumping: pump blood to the lungs and rest of the body Left and right sides of the heart serve as a pump Oxygen poor blood is collected in the right atrium from large veins (superior and inferior vena cava) Next, it flows to the right ventricle and is pumped by the pulmonary arteries into the capillary system of the lungs for CO2 and O2 exchange O2 rich blood is sent via pulmonary veins into the left atrium Left ventricle pumped out through the aorta From aortagoes to large arteries and small arteries, arterioles and capillaries Capillaries- small in size and ensure that all cells in the body have access to blood stream Fluids, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones and other substances are exchanged in capillaries Venules collect blood from capillaries and more it into the larger veins until it reaches superior and inferior vena cava Veins- 64% of blood volume is found within them Walls of arteries and veins is composed of smooth muscle, elastic fibers and collagen Nerve cells regulate expansion and contraction of blood vessels Valves from atria to ventricles serve to control the timing and amount of blood flow Left and right sides of heart have no direct connection therefore, O2 rich and poor blood cant mix Timings of the pumps are coordinated Beat starts in the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) in the upper right atrium signal spreads down the heart though the atrial myocardium to reach the atriventrivular node impulse is conducted to purkinje fibers where its sent to both ventricles As signal moves down, contraction of heart muscle occur Systole= contraction of heart Diastole= relaxation of heart Asystole= no heart beat Lub= first and loudest sound of a heartbeat; when valves between atria and ventricles closes and ventricles contract Dub= softer beat; second; occur with closure of the valves between the ventricles and large arteries (pulmonary and aorta)
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