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Anna Walsh (54)
Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Lecture 6 Theories of AgingAG Chapter 3 Theories of Aging Biological and Psychosocial TheoriesThe Canada Health Act is federal legislation that was adopted in 1984 that specifies the conditions in whichThe Canada Health Act provincial and territorial health insurance programs must operate in order to receive federal transfer payments under the Canada Health TransferThese conditions include Public administration Comprehensiveness Universality Portability and Accessibility Health Canada 2010 The provincial and territorial governments are in turn responsible for managing and delivering their health care services Health Canada 2010Models and Theories Models and theories are often times not carefully distinguished from one another in the literature and create this ongoing problem Aging is usually defined as the biological impairment of normal function probably as a result of changes made o cells and structural components Death is the final event is defined as the gradual biological impairment of normal function probably as a result of changes made to cellsTheories of AgingAging processes occur at the biological psychological and social levelsBengtson Rice and Johnson 1999 argued that there were 2 reasons why there was a lack of combined integration in gerontology1 3 different aspects of age on which theories can focusa Characteristics of the aging populationb The developmental or aging process c The way in which age is incorporated into the social structure 2 In gerontology it starts from facts systematic observation that may be grouped loosely into modelsand only rarely achieve the status of theory Gender is one of the strongest predictors of life expectancy with women living longer than menMost t are Models not theoriesRowe and Kahns 1998 theory of successful aging good physical and mental health and social functioning Ford and Lerners 1992 developmental systems theory are not really theoriesKyuper and Bengston social breakdown theory argues physical psychological and social health are tightly linked in later life and problems in one area may cause problems in another areaCampisise possible link between caloric restriction and altered gene expressionVon Dras and Blumenthalpsychological factors moderate the rate of aging and there are no genetic programs that specifies senescence only maximum lifespanWalker et altrade off between alleles that confer extended life span versus those that confer adaptational fitness Maruyama 1963Deviation Amplification Model classic systems theory model homeostasisby Bertalanffy 1969 and theory that after a system is jarred out of homeostasis the deviation mechanisms take over to accelerate works together and is a better theory of aging than the one belowGoldberger 1996 Chaos theory initially small changes can result in very large differences between systems or individuals Aldwin and Stokols 1988 used Maruyamas model to describe the effects of environmental stress 1
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