Class Notes (807,524)
Canada (492,700)
Health Studies (1,161)
HLTC22H3 (110)
Anna Walsh (54)

Chapter 10.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Chapter 10 Stress, Coping, and Health Stress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the aging process. Stress Stress as a Physiological State Classic Theories  Cannon was the first physiologist to systematically describe the physiological effects of stress.  He said fright can cause death  Selye expanded on Cannon’s conceptions in two ways.  Selye said there are three stages in reaction to stress. The first stage is similar to Cannon’s fight/flight reaction. The second stage is adaptation where there is a return to physiological homeostasis and the third stage is exhaustion where the organism may fall ill or die if the stress continues. Modern Theories  Modern conceptions of the stress response differ in several important ways. Both Cannon and Seyle argued that there are general responses to stress, but it is now widely recognized that there are individual differences in stress reactions.  There is an individual response in heart rate, respiratory rate, and galvanic skin response. Positive Physiological Changes  Researches have been so focused on the negative consequences of stress that possible positive outcomes tend to be overlooked.  Those with stress matured more quickly than their non-stressed peers.  They have better nerve myelinzation and locomotion, and reach puberty at younger ages Physiological Stress and Aging  In humans, the findings on age-related changes in the stress response are quite variable and somewhat contradictory. Trauma  Traumatic stress is defined by the DSM-IV-TR as direct personal experience of an event that involves serious threat to the life or physical integrity of self or significant others, or learning about such an experience of a family member or close associate.  Traumatic stress generally evokes feelings of extreme terror and helplessness, followed by emotional numbness  Traumatic events can be loosely grouped into three general categories. o Natural or technological disasters including earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, floods, and nuclear accidents. o The second type of trauma category includes wars and related disaster such as famine. o the third category is individual traumas which is usually life-threatening events that happen to particular individuals, such as crimes or serious accidents  The effects of trauma can last a lifetime. Stressful Life Events  There is some overlap between life events and individual trauma.  Stressful life events are major disruptions in individuals’ lives due to specific occurrences such as marriage, divorce, widowhood, and job loss.  The impact of stressful life events tends to diminish after 6 to 18 months. Chronic Role Strain  Sociologists developed the construct of chronic role strain, which refers to enduring problems linked to social roles such as marriage, work, parenting, finances, and health.  Life events have adverse effects on physical and mental health b/c they cause disruptions in ongoing relations with spouses, children, jobs, and/or finances.  A combination of problems in several roles may contribute to difficulties in individual adaptation, more so than single events Daily Stressors  Daily stressors or “hassles” are in many ways similar to chronic role strain.  Day-to-day problems may have more generalized effects on health status than relatively rare life events. Stress as a Transaction between the Person and the Environment  Stress cannot be said to be a characteristic of the environment or a response of the individual but rather arises from a combination of environmental demands and
More Less

Related notes for HLTC22H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.