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Lecture 5

HLTB02 - Lecture 5.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

10/17/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 5: Measures of Child Health and Cognitive Development - Psychometric testing o Psychometrics is a branch of clinical or applied psychology that deals with measurement of the human mind o Use quantitative devices to measure certain IQ trends o Main focus is to obtain a quantitative measure of how the brain is functioning o Sir Francis Galton was interested in documenting how the brain works  Published two publications in 1879  First to advance the theory of General Intelligence  Divided thought into two categories: • Ideas present themselves by association with some object or with previous ideas • Ideas are fixed by attention o Attention span enables an individual to manipulate or come up with ideas  Focused on 3 main ideas: • Rate at which associated ideas come to an individual o Used psychometric measures to determine the rate of associated thought for an individual  Found the average thought possible per minute was 50 • Each individual varied along a continuum • Periods in life in which they were originally formed o Early, and more education enables excess amount of thought/idea development  Early childhood experiences o Charles Spearman  In 1904, he published an article on General Intelligence  Came up with the notion that GI is made up on two different factors: 1 10/17/2012 • G factor: measure of cognitive ability o Described as a biological based variable that is the product of evolution • S factor: measure of a particular type of testing  Spearman’s law: if sufficient amount of individuals are given sufficient amount of tests, you will find that these measures will be correlated o Alfred Binet  Created an intelligence test that would evaluate children (Binet Scale) • Basis of the IQ test  Work was revised by Terman in 1916 o Main types of psychometric tests  Intelligence, Aptitude, Achievement, Creativity, Personality, Behavioral, and Interest tests o Intelligence tests utilized in schools  The Wechsler Scales, Stanford-Binet, Differential Ability Scales, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, The Woodcock-Johnson o Arguments against the existence of ‘general intelligence’  Cultural bias found in providing GI to the population • Question of fairness and bias • Bias related to the measures of intelligence • Some explanations were that cultural and racial bias within tests or within practices and motive of examiners • Test anxiety can also influence the optimum scores possible for an individual  Methodological bias • How can we put a number to intelligence? • Criticism of the positivist assumptions of science that underlie mental testing • Only based on observation and classification • Others reject the current methods used to measure intelligence o Early Development Instrument (EDI)  Measured the state of development for 5-year olds 2 10/17/2012  Utilized in the BC population  Validated for a wide range of populations
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