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Lecture 9

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

11/14/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 9: Childhood Diseases - Factors that should be identified when reviewing childhood diseases: o Obesity o Environmental Health o Nutrition - Health organizations are worried about childhood diseases for a number of reasons o Young children tend to be more exposed to pollutants (caused by crawling more as infants – closer to the ground) o Experience rapid growth, particularly the nervous and immune systems  Metabolic capacity cannot handle toxins in the environment • Cannot breakdown or get rid of environmental toxins o Relative to their body weight, differences in breathing, food, and water intake capacity will occur o Latency period  We know that children have a certain life expectancy  If there are diseases that have high latency, you will often find the disease gestating in an individual during their childhood o Intake of more/less variety of food - Are children protected? o Do we have standards to protect children’s health? o Are health protection standards focused or developed for children?  Focus tends to be on the entire population, particularly focused on adults o When they implement health protection standards, it focuses on the general population, only will allude to children o In most cases, standards include “safety margins: o Specificity of children is not being taken into account 1 11/14/2012 - Disease Types o Communicable diseases  Passed from one person to another  Uses common contact or in-utero transmission of disease  Types of Communicable diseases: • Person-to-Person contact o Chicken pox  Sudden onset of slight fever  Severity varies across a continuum  Characterized by blister-type rashes that first appear on body, face, and scalp • Spreads to the limbs as well  Incubation period: 14 – 21 days  Rash can cause transmission of disease to others o Fifth disease  Characterized by raised red and warm rash first appearing on checks • “slapped-cheek rash”  Rash fades but may recur for 1 – 3 weeks on exposure to sunlight  Incubation period is between 4 to 20 days o Hand/mouth/foot disease  Sudden onset fever, sore throat, small greyish blisters in mount lasting 4 to 6 days • May also appear on palms, fingers, and soles for 7 to 10 days  Incubation period of 3 to 5 days o Mumps 2 11/14/2012  Characterized by fever, headache, and inflammation of the salivary glands • Causes inflammation of the facial regions  Incubation period of 16 to 18 days  Secondary impact tends to affect males more than females (if secondary symptoms occur) o Roseola Infantum  Characterized by fever, red rash on the trunk spreading to the rest of the body (lasting about 1 to 2 days)  Incubation period of 5 to 15 days • Gastrointestinal infections o Cryptosporidiosis  Symptoms include diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, fever  Exposed to disease through contaminated water, fecal contamination, and petting  Incubation period of 1 to 12 days o Escherichia coli  Symptoms include diarrhea, stomach cramps, vomiting, and dehydration  Incubation period of 12 hours to 5 days  Communicable up to 3 weeks for children • Skin Conditions and Infestations o Lice  Nits hatch 7 days from date of contact and reach maturity to 8-10 days later o Ringworm  Ring-shaped patches of temporary baldness, with small yellowish crusts  Sources of infection include people or animals 3 11/14/2012 o Non-communicable diseases  Not passed from one person to another  More genetic or environmentally linked  Can encompass lifestyles and behaviors (choices that an individual makes)  Types of Non-Communicable diseases: • Asthma and obstructive respiratory diseases o Prevalence of Asthma have increased over the years (could be the result of diagnostic criteria) o Hypothesis that developing fetus become sensitized to external pollutants o Allergies and exposure to can be the result of outdoor and indoor air pollutants o Schwartz (2004)  Critical exposure time period where air pollution may have lasting effects  Full lung functionality does not occur until 6 years of age  Very permeable epithelial layer  Children breathe 50% more air per kg of body weight in comparison to adults  Pre-natal exposures • Pollutants exposed to the fetus pre-natal impact the likelihood of Asthma development  Short-term exposures  Long-term exposures are linked to decreases in lung functioning (will have less air exhaled)  Improvement in air quality lea
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