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HLTB02 Lecture 1.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

9/12/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 1 - A child is defined as anyone between the age of 0-18 o Infancy refers to anyone between the age of 1 month to 1 year o Toddler refers to anyone between the age of 1 to 2 years  Not proficient with motor skills o Childhood refers to anyone from birth to puberty o Adolescence is between 13 to 21 - All individuals are exposed to different situations o What happens in childhood impacts our long-term health  Exposures to different environments have different effects on the child o In general, children with better opportunities do better in life o Research shows that healthy children also do better in life o Focus on child health and development  Improve health and outcome for the child (long-term) - Biological features o Factors that affect childhood development are related to biology o Complete set of genetic material within an individual is referred to as a genome  A human genome consists of two sets of 23 chromosomes  Chromosomes are constructed via DNA strands  DNA contains molecules called nucleotides • Combination of nucleotides (organized into specific units) form specific chromosomes  The average human gene is 3,000 base pairs long o Human genome contains an estimated 30,000 genes o Locus is the location of a gene on a chromosome 1 9/12/2012 o Main characteristics of a human genome includes it’s size and functional operation - Function of proteins o Proteins are extremely important for the body (serve many different functions)  Makeup the structure of the cells  Influence direct cell activity  Affect gene activity when in different forms o Epigenetics  Epigenetics is the process of affecting action without altering the DNA • Will affect how the DNA is coded  Epigenetic mechanisms selectively trigger genes in response to environmental stimuli  Epigenetics is important to an individual throughout their lives  Anything related to the environment can influence epigenetics o Proteins are broken down into 24 amino acids  Amino acids are stored inside cells  Epigenetic factors are triggered by environmental factors  Epigenetic factors can explain differences between two identical twins  Proteins are available to perform a variety of tasks - Genes and human behavior o Does behavior really m
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