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HLTB02 Lecture 2.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

19/09/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 2: Growth and Development: The Ecological Model of Child Development - Assignment is based on the ecological model of child development - Why are children particularly vulnerable to their environments? o Children are a subpopulation that is very susceptible to certain environments o Every child is born with a brain that is not fully developed  Environmental experiences predicate how the brain will develop over the course of the lifespan  The experiences that an individual endures helps to form neuron connections in the brain o Stimulation is key; opens up new pathways for neurons to connect o Increased nerve networks enable a child to learn better o The first six years of life are extremely important for brain growth  First year is the most critical period for brain development  Babies’ brain doubles in weight after year one - “The interplay of developing brain with the environment is the driving force of development” (Irwin et al., 2007) - 3 main domains of development: o Physical development  Any development that occurs for the physical parts of the body  Development allows enhanced mobility, etc. (development serves a function) o Socio-emotion development  Relates to the behavior of the child  Is the child attached? Did they achieve certain goals for each stage of development?  How does the child regulate their emotions? o Language-cognitive development 1 19/09/2012  The ability for the child to understand certain concepts and express themselves through language o A child is not always skilled in all domains, but the goal is to achieve development in all domains - Model of ECD (ecological child development) o Determinants of health  Any factors that interact to create a specific health condition  Anything that determines the health of a child • Can be factors that are biological, cultural, environmental, behavioral, etc. o Social determinants of health  Any factors that are economical or social in nature o Biological embedding (ex: epigenetic)  The link between experiences and how it becomes part of an individual  Process by which early experiences becomes imprinted in the individual  Not a rule that poor early experiences will causes problems for the child later in life • Child might be exposed to some form of protective factors that reduce the influence of poor experiences that occur early in life o First sphere – the Child (Individual-level determinants)  Nutrition – the intake of nutrition at an individual level • Nutrition is vital for development  Conditions that result from nutrition-related problems • Anemia o Not enough red blood cells to transport oxygen from lungs to body cells o Anemia can affect even nutritionally healthy children • Beriberi o Prolonged thiamine deficiency o This illness can be prevented if the child consumes lots of food that has thiamine • Osteoporosis 2 19/09/2012 o Body’s bones become porous and fragile o To avoid this illness, the child needs to consume a lot of calcium  Diet containing calcium and vitamin D • Pellagra o Vitamin B-deficiency disease o Produces the 4 D’s o Can be prevented if child increases intake of protein-rich food o Common in places where proper amount of food is not available for the child • Rickets o A lot of Vitamin-D deficiency o Defective bone growth o Child might not be able to absorb vitamin-D  Different deficiencies based on nutritional intake (UNICEF graph) • In India, boys are getting better nutrition than girls o Individual relationships  Important for the child to have warm environments that rewards them for positive behaviors  Child requires a responsive environment  This environment promotes security and trust  Makes the child feel like they have mastered certain skills  Increases fluency and communication skills (social interaction skills) o Play time  Satisfaction of task initiation and completion  Children tend to be creative and original  Play time promotes competitive skills • Learn emotional regulation through outcome of competitive sports 3 19/09/2012 • Unorganized play enables the child to become more spontaneous o Second Sphere – the Family (family-level determinants)
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