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Lecture 9

Lecture 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Jason Ramsay

stLec 9 March 21 OrphansRutter and Nelson study studied Romanian orphanages Romanian orphanages orphans were institutionalized crib made up of fence and iron chained down form of chaos sterility no input for children to allow for good development horrible living conditions unclear whether being raisedthe orphanage or the child is born with that developmental disorderBeing an orphan orphan crisis in war torn impoverished refugee countries There is an orphan crisis in all parts of the world but especially in developing countries and in countries ravaged by war and diseases Scientists have always been interested in understanding whether orphanage confers adverse effects on long term health outcomes Understanding these effects allows us to be able to create interventions and it informs the understanding of childhood development in generalStudy of orphans provides a means to evaluate critical theory hypothesis We have talked about critical periods in the course We have talked about the role of critical periods and the early environment in biological embedding and development Can the study of orphans provide a means of evaluating the critical theory hypothesisSir Michael Rutters group Wanted to investigate the lives of children who were raised in very depriving orphanages There was a sharp discontinuity between their early and later rearing environments Change in rearing environment was sudden they were adopted out to middle class UK families The went from extreme high riskto extreme low risk rearing environmentsstudied the effects of deprivation on childs developmentextreme higher risk to extreme lower risk environmentfollowed these kids3 possibilities 1 reversing adverse effects2 he is too young to understand cognitive understanding 3 biological imbedding latent effect deed has done and cant be undone How do children end up with poorlong term outcomes Rutter Three possibilities 1 Persistence of effects might be brought about by continuities in adversity 2 persistence of the psychological effects of adversity is determined by the individuals cognitiveaffective process 3 Early adverse experiences bring about a lasting change in the organism in terms of somatic structure and function Continuity of adversity hypothesis cumulative effects should be expected recovery model goal to build up positive things to out shadow the negative Implies that the adverse outcomes should be largely reversible if there is a sufficiently radical change in environment Later functioning should vary systematically according to differences in the quality of the later environment Cumulative effects should be expected Cognitiveaffective hypothesis The sequelae should be much less marked if the adverse experience were restricted to an age period when the individual had a limited capacity for processing the events Also implies that the person must have a kind of amnesia for the events when they are older This may sound far fetched but childhood amnesia is a real phenomenon happens at 4 Rutter called this cognitive sets these sets could play a role in psychological outcomes Amnesiatraumatic childhood amnesia difficulty accessing memories theory of
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