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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 2 The interplay of the developing brain with the environment is the driving force of development 3 broad domains of development physical socioemotional language cognitive determinants of health - factors that interact to create specific health (physical, mental , social, spiritual) - e.g air quality, genetic disposition, smoking, lifestyle, social support system social determinants of health - they refer to a person if he or she has access to social conditions - e.g income education biological embedding - process by which early experiences become imprinted in the individual - how early things affect ones health in long term - e.g child exposed to domestic violence: more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems - problems such as aggression, hyperactivity and delinquency First sphere – the child (individual level determinants) - center of this model - there are several factors that help the development of child - nutrition- quality of food is extremely important o 55m children age 5 or younger suffer from moderate acute malnutrition worldwide o 19m suffer from sever acute malnutrition o 5m children die early o lecture 1. Prevalent nutrition-related problems - Iron folate to prevent anemia - Anemia- not enough red blood cells to transport oxygen from - Beriberi o prolonged thiamine deficiency o meats, legumes, and whole-wheat breads, enriched with thiamine Osteoporosis (slides) Pellagra - vitamin b-deficiency disease - can be prevented (slides)Rickets or defective bone growth( slides) - excessive vitamin b deficiency 2. Individual relationships - warm, responsive environments that are highlight approval and child rewarding - slides 3. Play time - satisfaction of task initiation and completion - creativity and originality - copetetion - spontaneity - skills and interests - physical exercise and activity Second sphere- the family family-level determinants - provides environmental stimuli for children - controls child’s contact with the distal environment - parent skills, cultural practices, dwelling conditions - driven by the social and economic resources that these parents can offer and have - social economic size, attachment to caregiver 1.) attachment to care giver o caring support and affection in early life o allows child to explore his/her environment o influenced by biological and social factors such as low birth weight, malnutrition, poverty, domestic violence, maternal depression o external support may be necessary National Longhitudinal survey of children and youth - 4129 children (ages 2 and 5 in 94/95 and 10 to 13 in 2002/03) - they were interested in punitive measures(punish a child when they do
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