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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Epidemiologic profiles of global health and disease Health of infants and children ONAVG 26 thousand children die daily, nearly all from preventable diseases Although rates are dropping all over world, the gains are not equitably distributed. Advances have been made in high and middle income countries but for underdeveloped countries, especially in sub SaharanAfrica, there has even been a stagnation or decline of IMR - IMR is often cited as the most sensitive indicator of a general level of development - High IMRs reflect underlying inadequacies in socioeconomic and sanitary conditions. Many of the leading causes of high IMR are preventable through structural and policy approaches. - According to conventional public health model, 75% of neonatal and 60% of child deaths could be readily prevented with a set of 20 proven interventions. i.e. skilled attendant at delivery; immunization and antibiotic treatment for pregnant women and newborns, practices during delivery, and exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 months of life. - Toddlers are subject to a variety of illnesses, and this can create a disadvantage due to educational and occupational challenges and difficulties in social and physical functioning. - Interventions to improve child survival include providing potable water, improving sanitation and cooking facilities, and oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea. Health of adults - Adults face more chronic health problems, rates of many noncommunicable diseases are much higher in adults than among children i.e. cancer, cardiovascular disease. - Adults deaths, illnesses, injuries and disabilities reduce productivity and family income. In addition, many adult illnesses are chronic, and place heavy social and financial burdens on health services and caregivers. Aging - Aging populations are a result of factors such as improvements in health and its determinants throughout the life course, and decreased fertility rates. - Older persons have higher rates of morbidity owing in large part to accumulated life factors that determine illness, such as exposure to environmental toxins, or poor nutrition. - They also suffer more from falls and depression STI/STD These include viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections transmitted through sex and primarily, although not exclusively, affecting genitalia and reproductive organs STIs are preventable through barrier methods of protection. i.e. condoms. The spread of STIs is largely determined by factors beyond choice of contraception, such as commercial sex, forced sex, migrant labour, gender disparities, and an overall lack of access to health services. Most bacterial STIs are curable through short course antibiotic therapy, and many viral STIs can be managed through medication and improvements in immunologic status. Factors such as stigma, cost and availability of services often inhibit ppl from seeking diagnosis/treatment. Womens health - Women in many societies have limited economic and social power, attain lower levels of education than men, and lack legal autonomy. - This are some of the factors which lead to gender specific health problems, as they are somewhat disregarded.- Maternal mortality shows the largest discrepancy b/w developed and developing countries. > lack of proper infrastructure for prenatal care, poor resource allocation, and low priority given to womens health result in enormous deficiencies in maternal health care, and low presence of skilled attendants for delivery and postpartum care in low income countries. - i.e. in Africa, women have a lifetime risk of 1 in 20 of dying from pregnancy-related causes, where in developed countries that risk lies at 1 in 2000. - There are 3 main types of care which have been underlined as essential for pregnant women: ANTENALCARE PERINATALCARE POSTPARDUM CARE - Poorly performed abortions are an important cause of maternal mortality. - Another leading cause of maternal death is preventable infections resulting from poor hygiene, primarily in the health care delivery setting, and contamination during child birth. Mens Health - Men experience higher rates of mortality than women and are overrepresented in many illness categories such as cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS and physical injury - Mens roles are primarily breadwinners in numerous societies may lead them to travel and work in dangerous/stressful settings, and result in illness and or injury. Lesbian transgender, gay bisexual health issues - At least 4 countries around the world criminalized same sex behavior in both men and women, and an additional 35 solely criminalize it for men. - For LGBT ppl, health concerns go well beyond specific needs, such as reproductive health or surgical services. - Societal homophobia and he
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