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Lecture 3

HLTC15 Lecture 3 and Tutorial

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Health Studies
Suzanne Sicchia

HLTC15 – Research Designs Lecture 3 09/25/12 − Agood literature review: • identifies: not one formula but .. − not mere synthesis or regurgitation of who said what on a given subject • analyzes: ideally a critical, interpretive piece • assesses: offers assessment of the quality and scope of existing knowledge • interprets: brings together what is known in order to highlight ..... − Narrative Reviews: (editorials, commentaries, overview articles) • includes editorials, commentaries, descriptive overviews of articles • most common, least sound in terms of quality of evidence • aim to show how concepts, theories and methods have developed within a particular subject over a particular period of time • largely descriptive, may be opinion-pieces − Qualitative Systematic Reviews: more comprehensive than narrative reviews • more rigorous than narrative reviews • researchers attempt to obtain all original (primary) research studies published on a given topic by searching multiple databases, performing hand searches, and contacting authors of previously published research • each article is reviewed in a systematic and consistent manner, often by several independent reviewers • articles are interrogated and rated using a standardized scoring system developed by the authors − Quantitative Systematic Reviews: meta-analysis • introduced in 1976 • critically evaluates each paper and statistically combines the results of the studies (pooling of data across studies) • particularly useful when studies are based on small sample size • synthesis of what is known and not known about the efficacy of a particular intervention • highest form of evidence for clinical decisions because results are produced rom rigorous critical appraisal and pooling of data from the most robust studies available – generalizability • drawback: Rate, disagrees about what evidence to pool, disagreements about best statistical methods to use − “Hierarchy” of Evidence: as you move up the pyramid, the quality of evidence increases • top of the pyramid evidence is hard to ob
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