IDSA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: International Human Rights Law, International Humanitarian Law, United Nations Human Rights Council

168 views6 pages
Lecture 2 - NGOs: Diviners, Enforcers and Gatekeepers of International Human Rights
and Humanitarian Laws
Battlefield at Solferino - Background:
oAt this point in time Algeria was a French colony and Henry Dunant was trying to obtain financial support
from Napoleon III.
oHenry Dunant aided both French and Italian soldiers, even the enemy - "Tutti Fratelli"
(All are brothers)
oPublished a Book "A Memory of Solferino" (3 main parts)
1. Recounts military battles
1. Conveys horrors of war
2. His vision: suggests relief societies ran by qualified volunteers should be set up to provide care for
the wounded; societies had to secure an agreement with the authorities of the countries - commanders in
the field should facilitate and support; there should be better transportation to shuttle soldiers to
hospitals; wounded soldiers are no longer in combat and should not be seen as the enemy
International Conference held in Geneva, 1863 - Committee compromised of 5 persons
1. General: G.H. Dufour
2. Dr. Louis Appia,
3. Dr. Th. Maunoir
4. Gustave Moynier
5. Henry Dunant
1864 Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field (4 Parts) - (convention
was superceded by Geneva Conventions of 1906, 1929, and 1949)
1. Provision of relief to the wounded without any distinction as to nationality
2. Recognition of the neutrality of medical personnel and medical establishments and units
3. Adoption of the emblem of the Red Cross on a white ground to differentiate combatants from
neutral medical personnel and facilities
Emblem can be seen as a reverse of the Swiss Flag (a neutral country)
Turkey & other Muslim societies use the Red Crescent
Persians use the Red Lion
Red Crystal is also used (adopted in 2005)
The emblem has two main uses: protective and indicative. A deliberate attack against a person, equipment, vehicle
or a building carrying the sign is considered a war crime under international law.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Assembly: The supreme governing body
25 members (All Swiss Nations)
In charge of oversight of the organization and ensures the organization carries out its mission; formulates
policy, defines general objectives and strategy, and approves budget and accounts
190 National Societies:
Make agreements with the government to secure access when there is a humanitarian crisis
i.e. Canada, Kenya, Afghanistan, Turkey
IFRC (The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), 1919:
Coordinate and direct international assistance by the movement; promotes cooperation between national
societies networks
What is a Principle? A rule, based upon judgement and experience, which is adopted by a community to guide its conduct.
The 7 Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1965):
These principles guide the ICRC and other humanitarian actors
1. Humanity
2. Impartiality
3. Neutrality - (what makes one neutral? It is not yet clear where you draw the line.)
4. Independence
5. Voluntary Service
6. Unity
7. Universality
Specific to the Red Cross:
1. Voluntary Service
2. Unity: There is only one Red Cross organization in each country
3. Universality: The Red Cross is a worldwide organization - all countries have an equal representation
Roles of the ICRC:
1. Operational: i.e. visiting prisons, ensuring access to medical equipment is provided, helping victims of armed
conflict and other situations of violence
2. Legal: promoting international humanitarian law and principles
Law of Wars:
Jus ad bellum: law prohibiting the resort to the use of force; EXCEPTIONS: self-defense and UN authorization
Jus in bello: focuses on the effects of war irrespective of who started or whether armed force was justified or not
International Humanitarian Laws (IHL):
oA set of rules that seek to limit the effects of armed conflict by regulating the means (type of weapons) and
methods of war, and by protecting the victims of war.
oPredated the founding of the ICRC and the ratification of the Geneva Conventions
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class