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Lecture 10

Lecture 10: Chapter 10


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn
Lecture
10

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L10 Chapter 10 Health and the Environment
BOX 10.1 Definitions
Natural environment t physical, chemical and biological factors and processes external to people,
though potentially of their making
Built environment t human-made settings, such as buildings, housing, sanitation and transportation
system, whether part of large cityscapes, roadways or small settlements
Social Environment t conditions within which people live and work, as shaped by cultural, historical,
social, economic, and political relations and factors
Ecology t study of the relationship and interacts between living organisms and their environment
Ecosystem t system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms and their natural
environment usually geographically defined
Political Ecology t understanding of the relationship and tensions between the natural (environmental)
and anthropogenic (human-led) change
Table 10.2 The Impact of Environmental problems and Condition on health
Table 10.3: Agents of Environmental Health Problems
- Water contaminations, vector borne diseases, waste/sewage
- Air Contaminations
- Physical Agents
- Toxic Pesticides and Organic Chemicals, toxic metals, food agents
Ecology thru the ages p472-3
- From hunter gathers (150,000 years ago)
- To domestication of animals and plants (10 t 15000 years ago)
- To human settlements and cities (5,000 years ago)
- To extractive industries (900-1500)
- To imperial exploitation (1600 onwards)
- To the industrial revolution (19th century)
- To era of mass production and consumption
- Environmental problems have accumulated during less than 10% of human history
Key Questions: Political Economy of Environmental Health: Determinants, Effects and Responses
Figure 10.1 Political Economy of environmental health determinants, effects, and responses
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Climate Change p475-8
- Un Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reached consensus in 2007 that:
- Temperatures are rising (more in the last century than ever before; 1990s hottest on record)
- Related to human activities, especially fossil fuel burning
- Magnitude of relationship, currently and in future remains uncertain
Th hows:
- ^PvZ}µ((_ulZZZ]o~u}phere is warmed by naturally occurring
gases trapping heat of the sun)
- BUT greenhouse effect magnified in recent centuries due to emission of greenhouse gases due
to human activities
- Z[uµ]]u}ZÀ]vÇíP]voïìÇrs and may rise by 2-10
degress by 2100
- Huge rise in concentration of main g-house gases since 1750: CO2, CH4 and N2O
- Principle sources:
o Electricity generation
o Factory production
o Motor vehicle use
o Agricultural and land use changes
o Forest clearing
- Fourfold rise in energy consumption just since 1950s
Table 10.1L World CO2 emissions by region
- Fastest growing population have the least increase
- Is population increase the cause?
- N.America & Europe < 12% global pop growth account for >60% energy consumption (half by US
alone)
- Vs: S.Asia and Africa 1/3 global pop yet only 3.2% world energy consumption
- In total underdeveloped countries (80%) of world population and OECD countries emitted
roughly equal carbon dioxide volume
- Therefore market forces t shaping production and consumption patternsvare far more
important than population in explaining patterns of fossil fuel consumption
Climate Change: Potential Health consequences p477-8
- Heat:
o Heat waves
o Droughts: food shortages and loss of arable(farming) and habitable land
- Precipitation changes
o Arid areas becoming drier; humid wetter
o Ocean levels rose by 10-20cm in 20th century
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