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Lecture 5: Chapter 6

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Lecture 5: Chapter 6 Epidemiological Profiles of Global Health and Disease
Table 6.1 Public Health Epidemiologic Terms
Incidence t rate of new cases
Prevalence t overall rate of disease per year
Duration = length of time illness lasts
Case Fatality = % of deaths among all people with a particular disease
Disability = physical/mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (work,
personal/household tasks)
Risk factor = individualized activity or condition that may increase chance of developing a disease
BOX 2.2: The Demographic Transition
- Explains population size shifts
- Virtually all societies have gone thru a transition from: high mortality, high fertility to low
mortality, low fertility
Stage 1: high birth rate but fluctuating death rate
Stage 2: decline death rate contin birth rate
Stage 3: decline in both birth and death rate
Stage 4: low death and low but fluctuating birth rate
Malthus: Population increases geometrically: subsistence, arithmetically
Poverty is the result unless there is moral restraint (less sex)
- Too many people for earth to support earth will run out of resources
Karl Marx: Each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction
Possible explanations for decreased fertility
- Shift from subsistence agriculture to factory: means smaller family size needed
- Higher marginal cost of extra child in urban setting/decline of multi-family households
- More woman educated + paid labor force
- DÀo}uv}(}]oµ]ÇÇu~}v[vl]}l}(Ç}µÁZvÇ}µP
- Long workday/shift work = less leisure time
- Contraceptive technologies/birth spacing (1840s condoms)
- W(vU}v}u]Y}]}vMM
BOX 2.4: The Epidemiologic transition
- Long term shifts in overall mortality rates
- As infectious diseases recede (and lower death) replaced by degenerative and so called
manmade disease
Stages of Transition
- Pestilence and Famine t women ate after everyone
- Receding Pandemics t lowering pandemic deaths
- Degenerative and human-made diseases
Age of Pestilence + Famine
- Low life expectancy, high mortality, high swings mortality, little population growth
Should also emphasize
- Role of warfare and violence (infections)
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