Lecture 5: Chapter 6 Epidemiological Profiles of Global Health and Disease
Table 6.1 Public Health Epidemiologic Terms
Incidence t rate of new cases
Prevalence t overall rate of disease per year
Duration = length of time illness lasts
Case Fatality = % of deaths among all people with a particular disease
Disability = physical/mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (work,
personal/household tasks)
Risk factor = individualized activity or condition that may increase chance of developing a disease
BOX 2.2: The Demographic Transition
- Explains population size shifts
- Virtually all societies have gone thru a transition from: high mortality, high fertility to low
mortality, low fertility
Stage 1: high birth rate but fluctuating death rate
Stage 2: decline death rate contin birth rate
Stage 3: decline in both birth and death rate
Stage 4: low death and low but fluctuating birth rate
Malthus: Population increases geometrically: subsistence, arithmetically
Poverty is the result unless there is moral restraint (less sex)
- Too many people for earth to support earth will run out of resources
Karl Marx: Each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction
Possible explanations for decreased fertility
- Shift from subsistence agriculture to factory: means smaller family size needed
- Higher marginal cost of extra child in urban setting/decline of multi-family households
- More woman educated + paid labor force
- DÀo}uv}(}]oµ]ÇÇu~}v[vl]}l}(Ç}µÁZvÇ}µP
- Long workday/shift work = less leisure time
- Contraceptive technologies/birth spacing (1840s condoms)
- W(vU}v}u]Y}]}vMM
BOX 2.4: The Epidemiologic transition
- Long term shifts in overall mortality rates
- As infectious diseases recede (and lower death) replaced by degenerative and so called
manmade disease
Stages of Transition
- Pestilence and Famine t women ate after everyone
- Receding Pandemics t lowering pandemic deaths
- Degenerative and human-made diseases
Age of Pestilence + Famine
- Low life expectancy, high mortality, high swings mortality, little population growth
Should also emphasize
- Role of warfare and violence (infections)
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Lecture 5: chapter 6 epidemiological profiles of global health and disease. Prevalence j overall rate of disease per year. Case fatality = % of deaths among all people with a particular disease. Disability = physical/mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (work, personal/household tasks) Risk factor = individualized activity or condition that may increase chance of developing a disease. Virtually all societies have gone thru a transition from: high mortality, high fertility to low mortality, low fertility. Stage 1: high birth rate but fluctuating death rate. Stage 2: decline death rate contin birth rate. Stage 3: decline in both birth and death rate. Stage 4: low death and low but fluctuating birth rate. Poverty is the result unless there is moral restraint (less sex) Too many people for earth to support earth will run out of resources. Karl marx: each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction.

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