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IDSB04H3: Globalization 17:10
Informal sector: outside of legal and social institutions. Such as sex work and child
labour but it could also mean cottage work. Selling goods on the streets.
Multinational and transnational corporations: often have special deals with
government which they do not have to abide laws and regulations, trying to avoid
GNP: total country outcome, as an economy as a whole. Take a look at 9-1.
Angles on health and globalization pg.418
The impact on health of neoliberal globalization
-“free trade and financial liberalization: privatization and deregulation
-debt crises and imposed conditionalities of IFIs to abandon welfare state
-environmental damage
-restructuring of labor processes
-creation of free trade zones
-occupational(work-related) health and disease
health problems also understood as manifestation of globalization
-spread of infectious disease (e.g. SARS, HIV, TB, West Nile)
-spread of political, social, and cultural conditions that underpin health and disease
(e.g. mental illnesses and diabetes)
International health reshaped as global health
Globalization: did it all start at the U of T?
Oracle of the Electronic Age
Best known book: The Medium is the Massage
Coined the term global village—a world made smaller and more integrated by
mass communication; electronic media; cultural interconnectedness
Globalization defined
Any system of transcontinental trade and travel
Integration of local/national economies into global market
Communications accelerated: transport, electronic media
International flow of capital, labour, knowledge
Cultural importation/invasion/hegemony
Neoliberal Globalization
Promotion of free markets/removal of trade barriers, resulting in:
Reduction of subsidies for the poor
Cost recovery/user fees for essential services
Privatization of public assets
Weakened role of government
Growing dominance of Western-based transnational capital; and
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High military expenditures: military creating a market of purchasing weapons and
uniforms. Weapons of mass destruction was an outright lie but was to control the oil
in Iraq
Whats old/ongoing and whats new in globalization
Promotion of free trade 17th-18th e
Internationalization of finance (mostly speculative)
Appalling factory conditions 19thc
Rate of increase in social inequalities
Communications/transportation revolution 19th c.
Transnationationalism (colonialism)
“cocacolisation cultural and corporate
Understanding Globalization
Not inherently good or bad
Depends on:
Who controls the flow of capital, labor and knowledge around the world
And who benefits
Neoliberal globalization, however, ahs proven problematic
Power and politics central
Look at 9-3 figure
The World Trade Organization: making the world safer for capitalism
-Founded in 1995 as permanent suprabody to replace GAATT
administers trade agreements and negotiations
monitors and enforces trade policies
resolves disputes internally; appeal panel decisions binding
-Promotes laissez-faire free trade, open markets, global competition, and non-
eliminating import tariffs
lowering subsidies
homogenizing rules and trade concessions
WTO, continued
-153 members
-governs over 90% of global trade
-oversees member countries implementation of actions to lower customs tariffs and
other trade barriers (also known as protectionism)
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-expands GATT mandate by covering intellectual property
WTO assessed,
- proponents (such as WB) claim success:
- over 4% growth rate in developing
-opponents ( such as unions) decry process and outcomes
undemocratic, unelected international authority
enormous losses to local industries and jobs
favors multinational corporations over human lives
challenges/overrules national laws, regulations, political processes
Health Implications of Specific WTO Agreements
-TRIPS-trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights
Patent-protected pharmaceuticals and traditional meds??
Doha declaration 2001: TRIPS should not prevent members from protecting public
health in emergencies
Members can grant compulsory licenses (generics)
2003 parallel imports of generics if country cant manufacture
- SPS- application of sanitary/phytosanitary measures
food/animal/plant health and safety-precautionary principle?
-GATS-General Agreement on Trade and Services
opening of health care, insurance markets
The WTO and Health
Assumption of non-interference. BUT
Economic growth prioritized over social policies
Corporate taxation/redistribution limited
Labor/child labor rights conflict with competition
Transnational corporations (tncs) and Health: the production side
-remember: revenues-expenses=profits
companies either raise reveneues or lower expenses
labor market flexibility: outsourcing, p/t
Bhopal 1984: Worlds worst chemical disaster
3800 dead immediately, 500,000 exposed
tens of thousand more experienced premature death and serious health problems
(cancer, lung disease, etc)
look at table 9-4, 9-5
Maquiladoras: sweatshops for export (pg.437)
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