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Lecture

globalization


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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IDSB04H3: Globalization 17:10
Informal sector: outside of legal and social institutions. Such as sex work and child
labour but it could also mean cottage work. Selling goods on the streets.
Multinational and transnational corporations: often have special deals with
government which they do not have to abide laws and regulations, trying to avoid
regulations
GNP: total country outcome, as an economy as a whole. Take a look at 9-1.
Angles on health and globalization pg.418
The impact on health of neoliberal globalization
-“free trade and financial liberalization: privatization and deregulation
-debt crises and imposed conditionalities of IFIs to abandon welfare state
-environmental damage
-restructuring of labor processes
-creation of free trade zones
-occupational(work-related) health and disease
health problems also understood as manifestation of globalization
-spread of infectious disease (e.g. SARS, HIV, TB, West Nile)
-spread of political, social, and cultural conditions that underpin health and disease
(e.g. mental illnesses and diabetes)
International health reshaped as global health
Globalization: did it all start at the U of T?
Oracle of the Electronic Age
Best known book: The Medium is the Massage
Coined the term global village—a world made smaller and more integrated by
mass communication; electronic media; cultural interconnectedness
Globalization defined
Any system of transcontinental trade and travel
Integration of local/national economies into global market
Communications accelerated: transport, electronic media
International flow of capital, labour, knowledge
Cultural importation/invasion/hegemony
Neoliberal Globalization
Promotion of free markets/removal of trade barriers, resulting in:
Reduction of subsidies for the poor
Cost recovery/user fees for essential services
Privatization of public assets
Weakened role of government
Growing dominance of Western-based transnational capital; and
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High military expenditures: military creating a market of purchasing weapons and
uniforms. Weapons of mass destruction was an outright lie but was to control the oil
in Iraq
POLITICAL ORDER DOMINATED BY THE LOGIC OF THE MARKET
Whats old/ongoing and whats new in globalization
Old/ongoing
New
Promotion of free trade 17th-18th e
Internationalization of finance (mostly speculative)
Appalling factory conditions 19thc
Rate of increase in social inequalities
Communications/transportation revolution 19th c.
Transnationationalism (colonialism)
“cocacolisation cultural and corporate
Understanding Globalization
Not inherently good or bad
Depends on:
Who controls the flow of capital, labor and knowledge around the world
And who benefits
Neoliberal globalization, however, ahs proven problematic
Power and politics central
Look at 9-3 figure
The World Trade Organization: making the world safer for capitalism
-Founded in 1995 as permanent suprabody to replace GAATT
administers trade agreements and negotiations
monitors and enforces trade policies
resolves disputes internally; appeal panel decisions binding
-Promotes laissez-faire free trade, open markets, global competition, and non-
discrimination:
eliminating import tariffs
lowering subsidies
homogenizing rules and trade concessions
WTO, continued
-153 members
-governs over 90% of global trade
-oversees member countries implementation of actions to lower customs tariffs and
other trade barriers (also known as protectionism)
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-expands GATT mandate by covering intellectual property
WTO assessed,
- proponents (such as WB) claim success:
- over 4% growth rate in developing
-opponents ( such as unions) decry process and outcomes
undemocratic, unelected international authority
enormous losses to local industries and jobs
favors multinational corporations over human lives
challenges/overrules national laws, regulations, political processes
Health Implications of Specific WTO Agreements
-TRIPS-trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights
Patent-protected pharmaceuticals and traditional meds??
Doha declaration 2001: TRIPS should not prevent members from protecting public
health in emergencies
Members can grant compulsory licenses (generics)
2003 parallel imports of generics if country cant manufacture
- SPS- application of sanitary/phytosanitary measures
food/animal/plant health and safety-precautionary principle?
-GATS-General Agreement on Trade and Services
opening of health care, insurance markets
The WTO and Health
Assumption of non-interference. BUT
Economic growth prioritized over social policies
Corporate taxation/redistribution limited
Labor/child labor rights conflict with competition
Transnational corporations (tncs) and Health: the production side
-remember: revenues-expenses=profits
companies either raise reveneues or lower expenses
labor market flexibility: outsourcing, p/t
Bhopal 1984: Worlds worst chemical disaster
3800 dead immediately, 500,000 exposed
tens of thousand more experienced premature death and serious health problems
(cancer, lung disease, etc)
look at table 9-4, 9-5
Maquiladoras: sweatshops for export (pg.437)
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