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Week 1, lecture 1 notes

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Sept 14 (week 1, lecture 1)
-ten million preventable child deaths annually. Could be avoided through simple measures such as
nutrition, clean environments, good health.
-30 000 children die daily
Key themes
-aim to understand international health in context of power and influence.
-health and medicine are culturally bound
- domain of political and ideological struggles. Aimed at understanding policy
-IH intertwined with economic concerns
-circulation of goods and people (globalization)
-development: as an accompaniment or precursor to good health. But what exactly does
development mean?
-understand IH in terms of interactions
-health is not simply the own characteristics of a person
Key definitions
-WHO: health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity (p3)
-International health- health cooperation between (inter: between nations) nations: Agreements
regarding health issues that cross borders. (p5)
-U.S institute of medicine has defined global health as `health problems, issues and concerns that
transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries
and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions[~ò
-WHO was (}µv}tt//X(µv](Ç]vPÁ}UµZ[Á}oZoZZ
Ways of conceptualizing international health (Box 1-1)
Antecedents of international health
-Black death- 14th-17th century bubonic plague
- over 25 million deaths in Europe: more than 25% of the population
- public health boards: cordon sanitaire (a belt to prevent people from going to certain parts of
the city), quarantine.
- people thought that the gods were angry, they though prayers would cure them.
-Colonial Conquest: 1492 onwards
-disruption, deprivation, disease, death (the four Ds). Spanish and Portuguese invasion.
-led to small pox and measles spreading
-150 million deaths in the Americas
-Atlantic slave trade: 1600- 1900
-11.4 million slaves departed West Africa because the native population of the Americas
disintegrated and the Portuguese, Spanish and British conquerors did not find the natives
adequate as slaves.
-10 million arrived in Americas. ZMiddle passage[ mortality rate est. 12-15%
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