2- potentially requires a coordinated international response.
-notification within 24 hours of first official case
-International Sanitary Regulation (ISR): adopted by WHO in 1951 as legal instrument to protect against
international spread of diseases.
-following SARS in 2003, WHO held a series of meetings to update international health regulations.
-Update included mandatory reporting of public emergencies.
-prior to that the only mandatory reporting was for the four diseases listed above. Reason for
update had to do with Chiv[o}Á}]vPP]vP}µlP]vPZ^Z^}µl]v
-Cases reported a week after the President of the USA went on his planned visit to Mexico.
Reporting is very calculated by governments
-early detection can lead to knowledge of their cause, and important steps can be taken to minimize
hazards. New conditions can be discovered before larger population groups are exposed.
Limitations to health data:
-highly sensitive and laden with political overtones.
-may be pressure for governing bodies to distort figures
-concern with international trade or tourism may prompt cases of cholera to be reported as
-data may be interpreted to support a particular position (ex. Pro or against smoking, guns, etc.)
-biased or selective info to get money or public attention
Types of Health Data (199)
-Population data: number of people in population and their attributes (sex, age, ethnicity, religion,
-vital statistics: births, deaths, marriages, by sex, age and cause
-health statistics: morbidity by type, severity, and outcome( monitor levels of health and disease, rather
than death. Difficult to obtain, extremely costly, need trained healthcare workers, etc.)
-health services statistics: number and types of facilities and services available; distribution,
qualifications, and functions of personnel; hospital and health care center operations (the health care
systems capacity; doctors, nurses, hospitals, clinics, etc.)
-data on social inequalities in health: social factors that lead to inequalities in health ( look at each of the
other four categories in terms of their breakdown on social class, sex/gender, racial/ethnic origins,
-need to look beyond disease manifestation and think through economic consequences.
-ex. Disabled person have stigma associated with them, so less likely to have job
-societal variable- measure of social welfare and security, distribution of power and resources- vital to
health related decision making.
Census Taking (204)
Preconditions for conducting a census
-sponsorship: legal basis
-universality: everybody taken into account. Problematic because homeless people, babies, illegal
immigrants, refugees, illiterate people, those living in very remote areas are all missed.
-simultaneity and specified time: what a sense of a snapshot in time because you want accurate data
before demographics change drastically.