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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Notes


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn
Lecture
10

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IDSB04 Lec 10: Human Health and the Environment
Box 10-1: Definitions
Table 10-2: The Impact of Environmental Problems and Conditions on Health
Table 10-3: Agents of Environmental Health Problems
P. 472-3: Ecology through the ages
From hunter gatherers (150 000ya) in balance with enviro and suffered little
from famines
To domestication of animals and plants (10-15 000ya)
To human settlements and cities (5000ya)
To extractive industries (9001500) mining for fuel and metals, etc.
To imperial exploitation (1600 onwards)
To the industrial revolution (19th century)
To era of mass production and consumption
Environmental problems have accumulated during less than 10% of human
history
Key questions: political economy of environmental health: determinants, effects, and
responses
Fig. 10-1: political economy of environmental health determinants, effects, and
responses
P. 475-8: climate change
UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reached consensus in 2007
that:
Temperature are rising (more in last century than ever before; 1990s hottest
decade on record)
Related to human activities, especially fossil fuel burning; not simply periodic
change relatable to natural activities
Magnitude of relationship, currently and in future, remains uncertain
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Climate change cont.: the hows
Greenhouse effect makes earth haitable (atmosphere is warmed by naturally
occurring gases trapping heat of sun)
BUT greenhouse effect magnigied in recent centuries adue to emission of
greenhouse gases due to human activities
Huge rise in concentration of main g-house gases since 1750: CO2, CH4, N2)
Principal sources:
Electricity generation
Factory production, etc
Table 10-1: World CO2 Emissions
Climate change cont:
Is it population increase? Yes, but population growth is higher on the lower
emisions side
N.America and Europe have less than 12% global population but account for over
60% energy consumption (half by US alone)
S. Asia and Africa 1/3 global population yet only 3.2% world energy consumption
In total, underdeveloped countries (80%) of world population and OECD
countries emitted roughly equal carbon dioxide volume
Therefore, market forces-shaping.
P. 477-8: climate change: potential health consequences:
Heat:
Heat waves
Droughts: food shortages and loss of arable and habitable land
Precipitation changes:
Arid areas become drier; humid wetter
Ocean levels rose 10-20cm in 20
th century
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Water and air-borne pathogens
Mosquito breeding sites; new diseases
Potential displacement of human population (2/3 within 60km of sea line);
diminish arable land
Damage to fisheries and aquifers
Loss of livelihood, malnutrition, increased susceptibility to disease
Box: 10-2: climate change and human development
Consequences of and responses to climate change go beyond the lifetimes of
politicians and business leaders. More importantly, lowering greenhouse gas
emissions will require significant changes to global economic production and
consumption patterns. It will require, too, governmental, corporate, and personal
sacrifices. P. 479
800 million road vehicles across world; use shaped by oil, auto, construction
industries
Hybrid drivers drive more, unlike normal car drivers are more conservative
P. 480: ecological footprints: Canadians Rees and Wackernagel
Translates human consumption of renewable natural resources into hectares of
average biologically productive land
An individuals ecological footprint I the total ; or global
Fig. 10-2: ecological footprints
P. 480: more footprints:
2003: global ecological footprint 2.3 hectares
US 9.6 hectares
Malawi 0.6 hectares
Human consumption outstripped earths biological productivity by 20% in 2001
But consumption is not the only issue
Fig. 10-3: environmental disease burden
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