IDSB04 Lec 10: Human Health and the Environment
โ€ขBox 10-1: Definitions
โ€ขTable 10-2: The Impact of Environmental Problems and Conditions on Health
โ€ขTable 10-3: Agents of Environmental Health Problems
โ€ขP. 472-3: Ecology through the ages
๎€From hunter gatherers (150 000ya) ๎€ in balance with enviro and suffered little
from famines
๎€To domestication of animals and plants (10-15 000ya)
๎€To human settlements and cities (5000ya)
๎€To extractive industries (900โ€”1500)๎€ mining for fuel and metals, etc.
๎€To imperial exploitation (1600 onwards)
๎€To the industrial revolution (19th century)
๎€To era of mass production and consumption
๎€‚Environmental problems have accumulated during less than 10% of human
history
โ€ขKey questions: political economy of environmental health: determinants, effects, and
responses
โ€ขFig. 10-1: political economy of environmental health determinants, effects, and
responses
โ€ขP. 475-8: climate change
๎€UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reached consensus in 2007
that:
๎€‚Temperature are rising (more in last century than ever before; 1990s hottest
decade on record)
๎€‚Related to human activities, especially fossil fuel burning; not simply periodic
change relatable to natural activities
๎€Magnitude of relationship, currently and in future, remains uncertain
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โ€ขClimate change cont.: the hows
๎€โ€œGreenhouse effectโ€ makes earth haitable (atmosphere is warmed by naturally
occurring gases trapping heat of sun)
๎€BUT greenhouse effect magnigied in recent centuries adue to emission of
greenhouse gases due to human activities
๎€Huge rise in concentration of main g-house gases since 1750: CO2, CH4, N2)
๎€Principal sources:
๎€‚Electricity generation
๎€‚Factory production, etc
โ€ขTable 10-1: World CO2 Emissions
โ€ขClimate change cont:
๎€Is it population increase? Yes, but population growth is higher on the lower
emisions side
๎€N.America and Europe have less than 12% global population but account for over
60% energy consumption (half by US alone)
๎€S. Asia and Africa 1/3 global population yet only 3.2% world energy consumption
๎€In total, underdeveloped countries (80%) of world population and OECD
countries emitted roughly equal carbon dioxide volume
๎€Therefore, market forces-shapingโ€ฆ.
โ€ขP. 477-8: climate change: potential health consequences:
๎€Heat:
๎€‚Heat waves
๎€‚Droughts: food shortages and loss of arable and habitable land
๎€Precipitation changes:
๎€‚Arid areas become drier; humid wetter
๎€‚Ocean levels rose 10-20cm in 20
th century
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๎€Water and air-borne pathogens
๎€Mosquito breeding sites; new diseases
๎€Potential displacement of human population (2/3 within 60km of sea line);
diminish arable land
๎€Damage to fisheries and aquifers
๎€Loss of livelihood, malnutrition, increased susceptibility to disease
โ€ขBox: 10-2: climate change and human development
๎€Consequences of and responses to climate change go โ€œbeyond the lifetimes of
politicians and business leaders.โ€ More importantly, lowering greenhouse gas
emissions will require significant changes to global economic production and
consumption patterns. It will require, too, governmental, corporate, and personal
sacrifices.โ€ P. 479
โ€ข800 million road vehicles across world; use shaped by oil, auto, construction
industries
๎€Hybrid drivers drive more, unlike normal car drivers are more conservative
โ€ขP. 480: ecological footprints: Canadians Rees and Wackernagel
๎€Translates human consumption of renewable natural resources into hectares of
average biologically productive land
๎€An individualโ€™s ecological footprint I the total โ€ฆ; or global
โ€ขFig. 10-2: ecological footprints
โ€ขP. 480: more footprints:
๎€2003: global ecological footprint 2.3 hectares
๎€‚US 9.6 hectares
๎€‚Malawi 0.6 hectares
๎€Human consumption outstripped earthโ€™s biological productivity by 20% in 2001
๎€But consumption is not the only issueโ€ฆ
โ€ขFig. 10-3: environmental disease burden
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Document Summary

Idsb04 lec 10: human health and the environment: box 10-1: definitions, table 10-2: the impact of environmental problems and conditions on health, table 10-3: agents of environmental health problems, p. 472-3: ecology through the ages. from hunter gatherers (150 000ya) in balance with enviro and suffered little from famines. to domestication of animals and plants (10-15 000ya) to extractive industries (900 1500) mining for fuel and metals, etc. to era of mass production and consumption. environmental problems have accumulated during less than 10% of human history: key questions: political economy of environmental health: determinants, effects, and responses, fig. 10-1: political economy of environmental health determinants, effects, and responses: p. 475-8: climate change. un intergovernmental panel on climate change reached consensus in 2007 that: temperature are rising (more in last century than ever before; 1990s hottest decade on record)

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