IDSB06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Reproductive Rights
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Reproductive Rights and Rights- Based Development
Professor told story about clinic that does hysterectomies under guise of other problems
Health services include HIV counseling, birth clinics, and postnatal care. In specific countries, there is control of fertility. The majority of
the money goes towards fertility regulation. The ability of a woman to have children is part of the reproductive framework. Certain
broader ideas trump a woman or family's ability to choose how many children she wants. In the West, there is a correlation between
population and scarcity of resources. This truism is just known. The bodies of racialized women began in NA and shifted to the curving of
population rights in countries outside the Western world.
Malthus (Principle of Population): population increases at a geometric rate, whereas food grows at an arithmetic rate. This would
result in problems, but we have natural causes that check excessive pop growth. Moral restraint is the key to population growth
Neomalthusian (Paul Erlich): In the Population Bomb, predicted that there would be overpopulation in the 70s that would become
dire by 1980s. Others write The Limits to Growth (Club of Rome), and President Carter writes the same.
Michael Klaire writes that you have population increases in unstable regions of the world, scarcity of resources (access to land
and water), and unstable regime and these will cause competition and war.
The 3d world retorts by pointing out that population isn't the problem; the problem is that the West consumes more than its fair
share of resources.
Homer- Dixon: the new war of the next century will be caused by resource scarcity wars in the 3d world. It is a fear based
discourse. It is about numbers encroaching to challenge our standard of living. Overpopulation will cause migration that will lead to
toppling of democracy and the institution of fascism in the West.
Consumption: 1974 in Bucharest, there was a population conference. The 3d world and the USSR questioned population control,
and charged it as racist and imperialist. The 3d world isn't against regulating fertility; they are simply weary of regulating their
fertility numbers that are devised elsewhere that is motivated by racism and imperialist ideas.
Reproductive rights: This arose from feminist critiques. The international community was regulating what could have in the womb.
We should move away from population control to reproductive rights. Its about the safety and right of women to make informed
decisions about their health and welfare. Give a woman the resources in order to regulate the number of children she has. The Cairo
Conference in 1994 was the culmination of these ideas and emphasized the importance of women's human rights. A couple and
individual has the right to choose the number, spacing and timing of progeny. They should be able to make the decision free of
discrimination, coercion and violence.
Coercion/ aggressive: The policies are aggressive and are done without consent of women.
North America: Early women's right activiists and the founder of the 1st birth control clinic in America, Margaret Sangar, endoresed
"negative eugenics". Promote human perfection through selective breeding and sterilization. She championed greater control of
population. America began to make eugenics a policy matter. Indianana had forced sterilization laws in 1907.
Sweden: 60k are sterilized b/c they have an unhealthy sexual appetite.
Canada: Sterilization Act of 1928 (Preston Manning) targeted people in meantal health institutionts, but also aimed at native
women, new immigrants, the disabled, unwed mothers, women accused of lesbian tendencie, after 2k women had been sterilized.
Eugenics: formed as a Social Darwinist perspective in the 19th century. The idea of "desirables" and "undesirables" arose (Galton), and so
did the idea of eugenics. The individual make- up is what causes faulty human beings, not the social system.
Key focus: Reproductive health, but fertility regulation has been the primary focus by donor gov'ts
Global sterilization: USAID, UNFPA, Planned Parenthood, Population Council
India: mass sterilization campaign --> 6.5 million people in India were sterilized during the 60s and 70s, a large number without
Emergency Population Control
Hormonal contraceptives were circulated in Canada and the States which emerged first in North America were tried and tested in 3d
world women in Thailand, Nigeria, India, etc. for 20 years. Betsy Hartman writes about the reproductive wrongs that were committed on
these women. These women were like guinea pigs, being tested for symptoms. 70% of research on contraceptives happens on women
Race/ eugenics/ reproductive rights
Tuesday, March 22, 2011
IDSB06 Page 1