Lecture 8

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International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01 – Lecture 8 – Climate Change and Food Security • Environmental Change and Soil Degradation • Agriculture and Food Security and issues in development • Two case Studies (cocoa agroforestry and savannah systems) • The Environment o What is the environment  Interface of the sciences • Geo, political, social, natural etc. o Geosciences + Climate Sciences + Biology + Ecology o Natural Sciences + Social Sciences relative to development and the environment • Land use under enviro and economic risk o Land conversion  All confounded by the current change in the climate o Climate change  Drought  Unpredictable rainfall o Soil degradation and low soil fertility o Soul and water contamination o Both lead to economic (enviro) risks • Atmospheric motion occurs because f spatial and temporal variation in distribution f energy at the earth’s surfaces o Cells leads to global climatic patterns o ITCZ, STZ o Due to these patterns, we find biomes around the globe (desert, savannah etc) o The equator is where there are rainforests; above is where there are deserts • Greenhouse gas in the air increases temperature in the world • Is it nature induced or highly climatic patterns? (human induced) • Climate Change o Freq has increased o Temp has increased o Permafrost has increased o Decrease in subtropic latitudes o Hurricanes have increased • Two approaches to climate change o Mitigation and adaptation o Mitigation: intl agreements o Adaptatins: enchance capacity to be able to deal with extremes f temp and keep persistent • The Basic Premise o Trees sequester C02 o Let people “own” their GHG • The Kyoto Protocol o ’97 o Clean dev Mechanism  Trade carbon credits bw countries  Market was set up around emissions • GHG Emissions vs GDP o Higher energy consumption w higher domestic product • Environmental Kuznets curve o Enviro degradation and income/capita  Bellcurve o Enough money to monitor projects of usage o But there is a downfall o More money, more degradation • Copenhagen Accord (09) o Continuation of Kyoto protocol, but nothing was signed/legally bound o There are high AND low emitters in both dev and developing countries o Individual focus (footprint) • REDD o Continuation of Clean development mechanism o If there is a reduction in deforestation, there is a monetary compensation o The first time where environmental concerns has money associated with it o Money traded for reduction • Deforestation rates is where there is a high level of forestry = there is a low capital to stop deforesting (low capital req’ts) • Land is low carbon, low productivity farmland o Add rev to already economically marginalized farmers and rural communityes • Vulnerability and adaptation o A socially constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics
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