WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT? – CONCEPTUALIZATION AND DISCOURSE
o Dutch investing opportunity in Ethiopia
o Report showing the life stock industry in the world/Africa
o How come there are people starving in Ethiopia but they have
so much exports?
o Contradiction – some how there are resources to be extracted
but people living there are starving, what type of economic
system do they have?
o Watching the development aid going into Africa
o She questions the whole Aid industry in Africa
o Argument: These financial aids have done more harm than good
to most African countries. The country is more corrupted then
they were before aid was given. The money is used to suppress
the people and to benefit themselves
o There are very powerful glasses in which we see the world and
these glasses are languages
o How these conventions gained legitimacy?
o Look at alternatives (Chapter 4)
o However we clarify the world there are always presupposition
o All labels have a reason behind it and cannot be taken for
o We tend to use labels without questioning them
o Labels organize things in response to an issue/purpose
o The way we divide the world is driven by an underlying
o There are a set of assumption under labels
o What does ideological frameworks mean?
o Ex. Don’t drinks that water?
You need to help differentiate things for people
Right from wrong
Labeling sometimes is not so innocent because it makes a
certain assumption of why you shouldn’t do something
o Labeling legitimizes things Ex. in relationships
Ex. Calling something a disease makes the assumption
that medication and treatment is needed
o Labels are not fixed, they change as our ideas about certain
o From 1960 from a French demographer
o He separated the world into different worlds because he saw a
political division during the war
o There was 2 great divides in term of world power and then
there was everyone ‘else’
o Overtime people changed the meaning of 3 world and started
using the word as ‘developing countries’
o The original label was very different
How does the World Bank define development?
o Low, middle, high income they classify the world as
o To the WB development means economic growth
GDP – total domestic output in terms of goods and services in a country
and then divided by the number of individual is Per a Capita
Power purchase parity – the worth of money in a country, what can one
dollar in India