IDSB02: Lecture 11 - Conservation and Development. March 15th, 2017
Species on Earth:
● Currently estimated 8-9 million species across all species.
○ Likely an underestimate, especially for insects and microorganisms.
● Numbers are not stable due to the discovery of new species.
○ Humans are also causing extinctions at a rapid pace unprecedented since the
mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
Key Reasons for Species Extinction Worldwide:
● Habitat degradation and loss.
● Overexploitation of species.
● Climate change.
● Other environmental effects such as pollution.
Figure 1: Biodiversity Declines.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN):
● The process refers to the demographics between urban and rural areas.
● Founded in 1948 as the world’s first global environmental organization.
● It’s the largest professional global conservation network.
● Over 11,000 scientists across 160 countries.
● A neutral forum for governments, NGOs, scientists, businesses, local communities.
The IUCN Redlist: ● IUCN’s Redlist is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global
approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species.
○ Ranges from extinct to least concern.
What’s the Link to Development?:
● Biodiversity and conservation are linked to development as development occurs near
most of the world’s biodiversity.
● The “latitudinal diversity gradient”: Diversity is greatest in the modern day Global
● Conservation in the Global South is critical to preserving global biological diversity.
Reason for Biodiversity:
● Absence of climatic constraints due to the high heat and moisture availability.
● Year-round growth.
● Long-term stability.
● 40-100 million years without glaciation.
● Island effects resulting in isolation effects.
● Co-evolution has reduced competition.
Developing Countries and Biodiversity:
● Biodiversity loss in developing regions is commonly associated with mismanagement.
● The entry of foreign interests to preserve diversity.
● Spatial patterns of extinction and threat are attributable to the fact that developing
countries are in the most diverse regions of the world.
Innovations for Conservation and Development - Brown, 2002:
Suggesting Strategies for Reducing Environmental Impacts:
○ Protectionist Paradigm
● “Our Common Future” in the 80’s was the first piece to define environmental
○ Created a shift in conservation and development.
● Approaches in the 80s-90s:
○ Integrated conservation and development (IC) approaches.
○ Community-based conservation.
○ Wildlife utilization and extractive reserves.
Conservation and Development - Protectionist Paradigm: ● Conservation biologists, practitioners, organizations, commonly view conservation as
being in opposition of development and local community welfare.
○ Led to a general “protectionist” paradigm in conservation.
● Development is identified as the ‘problem’ and the main causal agent of biodiversity loss.
○ Protected areas were created that excluded human activity.
● It’s a top-down exclusionary approach.
○ Based on Western ideals of strict conservation biology due to interpretations of
Limitations of the Protectionist