IDSB02H3 Lecture 11: Conservation & Reading Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Marney Isaac

IDSB02: Lecture 11 - Conservation and Development. March 15th, 2017 Species on Earth: ● Currently estimated 8-9 million species across all species. ○ Likely an underestimate, especially for insects and microorganisms. ● Numbers are not stable due to the discovery of new species. ○ Humans are also causing extinctions at a rapid pace unprecedented since the mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Key Reasons for Species Extinction Worldwide: ● Habitat degradation and loss. ● Overexploitation of species. ● Climate change. ● Other environmental effects such as pollution. Figure 1: Biodiversity Declines. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): ● The process refers to the demographics between urban and rural areas. ● Founded in 1948 as the world’s first global environmental organization. ● It’s the largest professional global conservation network. ● Over 11,000 scientists across 160 countries. ● A neutral forum for governments, NGOs, scientists, businesses, local communities. The IUCN Redlist: ● IUCN’s Redlist is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species. ○ Ranges from extinct to least concern. What’s the Link to Development?: ● Biodiversity and conservation are linked to development as development occurs near most of the world’s biodiversity. ● The “latitudinal diversity gradient”: Diversity is greatest in the modern day Global South. ● Conservation in the Global South is critical to preserving global biological diversity. Reason for Biodiversity: ● Absence of climatic constraints due to the high heat and moisture availability. ● Year-round growth. ● Long-term stability. ● 40-100 million years without glaciation. ● Island effects resulting in isolation effects. ● Co-evolution has reduced competition. Developing Countries and Biodiversity: ● Biodiversity loss in developing regions is commonly associated with mismanagement. ● The entry of foreign interests to preserve diversity. ● Spatial patterns of extinction and threat are attributable to the fact that developing countries are in the most diverse regions of the world. Innovations for Conservation and Development - Brown, 2002: Suggesting Strategies for Reducing Environmental Impacts: ● Pre-1980’s: ○ Protectionist Paradigm ● “Our Common Future” in the 80’s was the first piece to define environmental development. ○ Created a shift in conservation and development. ● Approaches in the 80s-90s: ○ Integrated conservation and development (IC) approaches. ○ Community-based conservation. ○ Wildlife utilization and extractive reserves. Conservation and Development - Protectionist Paradigm: ● Conservation biologists, practitioners, organizations, commonly view conservation as being in opposition of development and local community welfare. ○ Led to a general “protectionist” paradigm in conservation. ● Development is identified as the ‘problem’ and the main causal agent of biodiversity loss. ○ Protected areas were created that excluded human activity. ● It’s a top-down exclusionary approach. ○ Based on Western ideals of strict conservation biology due to interpretations of global biodiversity. Limitations of the Protectionist
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