Lecture Notes. Development and Environment.doc

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International Development Studies
Marney Isaac

LECTURE 2: DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT What is Development? Capabilities Approach The Limits to Growth - A report written by the club of Rome(1972) - Up to this point development only included economic, political, and social aspects - 1 institutionalized examples of where environment became part of development - “Modelling the limit of growth” “is it sustainable?” - True to the Malthus theory – Malthusian Concept in contrast to Max ideas which were that population was a problem of distribution Sustainable Development - 1st coning of the term “sustainable development” - Reo 1992 Win-Win or More of the Same? - Jeffrey Sacks - Sustainable development maintains relationships - We can have economic growth and sustainable development - We can manage these limits of growth - Controversial: very vocal about his ideas around sustainable development Environment and Development: Kuznets Curve - A proposal/theoretical idea that Rings true to Jeffrey Sacks comments - Looking at the limits of growth  curve should be linear  increased development/population = degradation - Curve suggests that the relationship is an inverted “U” o Increases to a peak  Increase development and financing (Kyoto) = decrease in degradation - What does this curve mean for limits of growth? o There is no limit to growth, we can get around these limits 3 Proposed reasons for inverted U relationship - 1) Stages of growth: Small scale use of resources, with low income per capita, to large scale and high incomes - 2) Increasing population growth: better development = higher health care - 3) Political Economy: refocusing financial support monitoring Environmental Kuznets - 1) Air Contamination: starts low, increased rapidly with income, than decline as money is allocated o Ex. Acid Rain, PCD - 2) Deforestation: doesn’t follow the Kuznets relationship – has not seen a decreased cause its “pushed back” o Increasing recycling locally, but increasing exports of wood internationally Questions - Where is the turning point on the EKC? o Considered a trade-of between our money in environmental degradation into monetary - What is the role of the state on the Kuznets Curve? Why discuss a Short History of Progress, Progress, and Collapse Fool’s Paradise: Rapa Nui and Last Tree - We are also a civilization that exploits our forests The Great Experiment, Domestication, A Revolution! Progress and Thoughts on Limits - Malthus: Supply Issue - Marx: Distribution Issue Rapa Nui: civilization that’s never recovered - Argument #1: Rain Bird: the European contact + new diseases = downfall of Rapa Nui - Argument #2: Wrights: Deforestation = downfall of Rapa Nui Sumer (Iraq): civilization that’s never recovered - Aroubiale: water deposited - Surrounded by water Solonetz: Salinization of Soils - Current problem through South-Saharan Africa - Plants cannot grow Mayan - All rainforest, large tropical forest - Susceptible to erosion - “take down a tree in a tropical forest = lose the soil” - Ex. Toronto – is a good example that follows the Mayan civilizations o river passages, good soils &resources  urbanization & development = cementing in the land of Canada - Mayan collapse overlaps the 200yr drought Roman Empire - Massive geographic extent - Mediterranean area = lots of shrubs - Spreading agriculture, increasing animals - Got food from north Africa - No production in the city center = collapse & abandoned Egypt - Washed salted soil China - Expands over a large latitude of ranges = “resilience in agriculture” Readings for Next Class: Tropical Soils And Food Security & Breaking Massade LECTURE 3: SOILS THE GROUND BENEATH OUR FEET Breaking the Sod - Erosion: 3 wave: rise of major tropical forest depletion. (Extraction, etc.) - Many soil classification terms came from Russian soil scientist Development of Soil Science - Ethnopedology: to help evaluate soils - corn, squash and bean = give nitrogen to ecosystems - Nitrogen fixation = converting unusable nitrogen to useable nitrogen for plants to grow Pedosphere - Integration of biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere - Highly variable o Red = Iron & Aluminum (most soils look like this) o Grey = water saturated soils because there is no oxygen - Use “ profiles” to classify soils (A, B, and C horizons) Rock  Soil - Soils come from rocks from weathering overtime - Physical, chemical, biological weathering Aside: Soils in Canada are 12000yrs old (very young) Soils in Kenya are 300,000 million yrs old (very old) Soil Profile - Horizons develop/ expand in soils overtime from weathering Soil: Definition - Dynamic natural bodies - Properties from the combined effect of climatal and biological (animal poo) activities - Modified by topography (location) - Acting on parent material over periods of time - Soil Texture - Sand = big, physical weathering, small surface areas (cannot hold nutrients), less water holding capacity - Clay = microscopic, experiences chemical weathering, is active (reactive surface hold nutrients), large surface areas(hold a lot of nutrients), more water holding capacity Reading 2: Tropical soils & food security - Q. Relationship between soil erosion & food production? o Less production from more erosion, the first wave of erosion has the largest impact in crop production (because the top soil is where most of the nutrients are found) Texture vs. structure - Texture = the material, doesn’t change - Structure = arrangement, that can change o Can predict how susceptible soils are to erosion Soil Structure - Spheroidal: rapid infiltration - Platelike: in compacted soils , high erosion rates(water can’t get through), slow infiltration - Blocklike: further down in soil profile, less susceptible to erosion - Prismlike: in semi-arid environments, similar to blocks except pointed top, occurs from salinization (salt the moves up in soil creates this shape) Soil structure & stability - Roots: associated with granular structure (Hyphae: roots of fungi) - Organic matter : leaves that decompose & decrease erosion rates - Presence of Clay: general clay flocculation can decrease erosion o Salt/Sodium disperses clay o Calcium or magnesium brings clay together o Clay has a net-negative charge  Developed during weathering  Cation Exchange Capacity: Clays surface is (-) & all the (+) charged nutrients are attracted to the clay = hold nutrients - Low exchange = highly weathered Fertility - Hydrogen & Aluminium = Acidic Soil (in old soils) - Sodium = Salinized soil Aside The soils in the tropics are not nutrient Soil-root interactions - Leaching occurs if there is no cation exchange capacity - Ex. Nitrates are put into clays which can’t hold negative elements Long-term weathering of tropical soils - With time different horizons form in soils Reading 2: Tropical soils & food security - Soil quality o Ferralsols (or Oxisols) = dominate soil type  Intense acidification, increasing free aluminum, phosphorus fixation (finite source) • Low resilience • High sensitivity o Acrisols = dominate soil type Aside High phosphorus fixation = very sticky soils, main issue in fertility, occurs I high acidity Temperate Soils vs. Tropical Soils - Temperate o Younger, less weathered, higher CEC, neutral pH, low P fixation, high organic matter - Tropical o Typically older, more weathered, low CEC, high acidity, High P fixation , low organic matter Reading 2: Tropical Soils & Food Security - Solution to sustainable soil development o Local technologies o Informal experimentation o Adaptation Reading for Next Class: “the oceans role in… , and adaptation to the developing world…” LECTURE 4: CLIMATE Remember A01 - If 2 areas if two different air pressure – high pressure moves towards low pressure General Circulation - Pressure gradient force - Coriolis effect: something in a straight line curves (something going North will curve East) - Friction - Cell Theory - Hadley Cell: falling high pressure o Moves north and south o Brings low pressure up to the north & high pressure down to equator o Sub-Tropical high pressure = north of equator = deserts  “falling bands of clouds at the north and south poles” o Intertropical Convergence zone = south of equator = rainforests  “band of clouds around the equator” o Have been affected by climate change - Ferrell Cell: o Southern = Mediterranean o Northern = Temperate/mid-Latitude  Not abnormal to have (-20) and (10) degree weather because the jet stream and westerlies/easterlies  Canada is the coldest and warmest place (British Colombia) o Polar Front: where the west and the east air meets Aside: Earth spins faster because circumference is smaller Hurricanes/Monsoons - North and South movement of Hadley cells o Ex. Atlantic(wet air) + Sahara(dry air) = Monsoons  affects rain seasons Regional Climate - Wet Tropics(Rainforests): Intertropical Convergence Zones o Do not see drastic temperature changes here - Savannah (Semi- Arid/Arid): STHPZ o Have both very dry & wet seasons - Deserts: o Needs a lot of irrigation  but causes salinization - Temperate(Mid-Latitude): o Abundant in water and forests - Mediterranean: o may look like semi-arid but climate is opposite of it What is the difference between weather & Climate - weather: “conditions” - helps us understand climate - Climate: “behaviour” Climate Change - Mitigation: The basic premise o Kyoto: o Copenhagen Accord  REDD: avoid deforestation, keeping emissions rates at the same level, carbon credits targeted for regions, values forests/carbon by opportunity costs - Adaptation: o Migration o Wait & See o Reduce vulnerability through development/adaptation  Vulnerable communities to environment change will lose! Reading: Adaptation to climate change in the developing world (Adgar et al 2003) - Highly vulnerable regions will be near the equator – the ITCZ - Climatically? – why a wet season Reading for Next Class: “Drought in the Sahel (Zeng 2003)“ LECTURE 5: *You came late Irrigation - When the soil doesn’t have enough water - 40% of food has to have groundwater irrigation ( if surface water isn’t enough groundwater is used) - Subsidence o Ex. Mexico City is sinking because they use groundwater aquifers to support human needs Is this surprising? - US, China, India, and Pakistan all fall under sub-tropical high pressure zone where water is limiting in these regions, matched with high population, high levels of crop production, and much land area explains why they use so much irrigation. Salinization - Drip irrigation: Water is placed just at the base of plants – a method used n Morocco & is run communally. If there is water where the roots of plants reside then mass evapotranspiration won’t take place which in turn avoids salinization. Water Management: Quantity & Quality - Access = quantity and Safeness = Quality Quantity: Water Management Issues - Regional uses: distribution of water use is variable Quantity: Sources of usable freshwater - Source: o Surface Water: from runoff, makes lakes and rivers o Ground water: underneath soil surface, refilled by recharge, found in unweathered parent materials. Safer water because it is not as vulnerable to contamination. Nitrate contamination is a major issue of contamination, it can cause Blue-Baby syndrome.  Ex. Greenbelt helps shield out contamination Quantity: Reading: World Water Resources (Oki and Kanae 2006) - Surface of water recharge is the rate of water movement. Surface water drains quickly (2.5 weeks) and although groundwater is cleaner it take thousands of years to recharge. - Take evapotranspiration + precipitation = - Most scarce water is not in the areas we would have expected – actually in the STPZ Quantity : Dams and Changes in Water - Used for increasing water availability in scarce regions, social and environment benefits & impacts Water Quality - Surface water is highly susceptible to contamination (4) Keys to water quality 1. Protect the source 2. Water treatment 3. Clean distribution system 4. Comprehensive testing – microorganisms These don’t exist in many regions of the world - Ex. Walkerton had a major E.Coli contamination into drinking water supply. Cow manure got it, testing failed to detect the water, water was distributed, and caused 2500 sick. - It was a “blame game” between the previous & current gov’t Risks - & new problems - Mining contaminate surface & groundwater since cyanide leach into water sources Relationship between GDP & Water Use EXAMINATION QUESTION: Describe the water quality & quantity relative to kuznet curve Quantity: Reading: World Water Resources (Oki and Kanae 2006) - “Virtual water trade”: when crops and other products ar
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