Lecture 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04 - Globalization, Trade and Worker Health- Lecture 6 Definitions Table 9-1  Free trade zones/export processing zones o Try to attract new business as well as foreign investment by tariffs and quotas are eliminated and regulations and labour productions are lower  Deregulation  Informal sector  MNC’s and TNC’s o TNC’s do not need to abide with the regulations of the new country  Capital  Labour  GNP o Measure of national income and output tat estimates the value of goods and services produced in an economy  Globalization and its key features  Angles on health and globalization p. 418 o Impact of health on neoliberal globalization  Changed from the vol of trade of 10 yrs ago (which was lower), it is not a question of the volume, but how that trade was regulated  Free trade era has eliminated incentives  Privatization has eliminated access to certain things  Environmental damage  Health problems also understood as manifestation of globalization o Spread of disease o Spread of politicial, social, and cultural conditions that underpin health and disease  International health reshaped as “global health” o What are the differences bw international and global health?  Globalization: did it all start at UofT? o Marshall McLuhan (Professor of English, Director of Centre for Culture and Tech) o Oracle of the Electronic Age o Book: the medium is the massage o Coined the term “global village” – a world made smaller and more integrated by mass communication; electronic media; cultural interconnectedness  Globalization defined pg 418 o System of transcontinental trade and travel o Integration of local/national economies into global markets o Communications accelerated: transport, electronic media o Intl glow of capital labour, knowledge o Cultural importation, invasion, hegemony  Neoliberal globalization pg 420 o Promotion of free markets/removal of trade barriers, resulting in: (see box)  Military expenditures  Military guns etc creating a market  Market interests so countries can have more hold on oil and economic interests  Neoliberal globalization has everything to do with the war in Iraq w oil in ’91 and Bush era  Struggle for control over various profits o Political order dominated by the logic of the market  What’s old/ongoing and what’s new in globalization? Pg 419 o Old th th  Promotion of free trade 17 and 18 c  Smith that markets should be left alone  Appalling factory conditions 19 c industrialization  Because they wanted to produce as much as they can as quick as they could th  Communications/transportation revolution 19 c  Trains replacing ships  Transnationalism  Cultural infusion  Cocacolisation (cultural and corporate integration) o New  Internationalization of finance (mostly speculative)  Buying selling pounds in Europe, etc  Rate of increase in social inequalities  Is much faster  Understanding Globalization p 418-421 o Not inherently “good” or “bad”  Depends on:  Who controls the flow of capital, labour and knowledge around the world  And who benefits from it o Neoliberal globalization however, is problematic o Difference b/w the two is how the power and politics central are  Pathways (figure 9-3)  The WTO: making the world safer for capitalism pg. 420-3 o Founded in ’95 as a permanent suprabody to replace GATT o Because of the context of the CW, it was very difficult for these rules to be implemented  Countries played off the USA and SU o WTO made trade rules enforceable thru the WTO o Resolves disputes internally; appeal panel decisions binding o Promotes laissez-faire free trade, open markets, global competion and non- discrimination  Eliminate import tariffs  Lowering subsidies  Homogenizing rules and trade concessions o 153 members o Governs 90% of trade o Oversees member countries’ implementation of actions to lower custom tariffs and other trade barriers (protectionism)  Medications are patent protected o Expands GATT’s mandate by covering intellectual property and services as well as goods  WTO assessed pg 422-3 o Supporters such as WB claim success  Actually, growth rates have been much lower recently than the 60’s (before neoliberalism) o Even IFIs admit that globalization is fundamentally asymmetric o Opponents decry process and outcomes  Undemocratic, unelected intl authority  Causes loss to local industries  Favors MNC over human lives  Challenges/overrules national laws, regulations, political processes  Table 9-2  Health Implications of Specific WTO Agreements (pg 428-31) o TRIPS  Patent protected pharmaceuticals and traditional meds  Doha Declaration ‘01  TRIPS should not prevent members from protecting public health in emergencies o Members can grant compulsory licenses (generics)  Gov’ts can tell companies that we need this drug and we’re going to start producing it
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