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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Introduction N What Nyerere proposed in 1968 was to achieve healthy societies by building peaceful communities: providing social and economic security in ways that protect the vulnerable; allowing freedom of expression and opportunities for full participation in civic life; and providing universal and equitable distributed services, including water, sanitation, education, shelter and health care N Focusing on societal change through the lens of political economy, these approaches provide a counterbalance to mainstream efforts in global health The Disease Control conception of international health: its successes and limitations N International campaigns could aid or impede the making of healthy societies N The problem of anemia-inducing hookworm was addressed in some areas through latrine- building, promotion of shoe-wearing; yellow fever through extensive antilarval efforts, and then later a vaccine. The global eradication of small pox in the 1980s was the most notable, based on aggressive immunization campaign, has been one of the single greatest feats of international public policy N However, the eradication of malaria was more problematic. The Global Malaria Campaign in 1955 which exclusively involved the use of DDT to eradicate malaria meant that 1 billion people were no longer threatened by malaria within a few years only. However, in the late 1960s, when the technology (DDT) faltered due to mosquito resistance and political opposition, together with concerns over DDTs environmental effects, the campaign was abandoned. Smallpox Eradication N It was easier to eradicate than malaria N Smallpox inoculation was practiced in India and China N The lack of animal hosts, availability of effective vaccines, rapid jet vaccinators were all important factors in its control N The WHOs global malaria campaign in 1967 was divided into several different phases: o Attack phase-mass vaccination program was documented was instituted, aiming for 100% coverage. Documented coverage reached 80% and helped the incidence of smallpox to fall below 5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. o Consolidation phase- mass vaccination was terminated, and it was necessary to only vaccinate new arrivals and newborns o Maintenance phase- surveillance and reporting was shifted to the national and regional health service N Accumulating funds for these campaigns however did pose hardships for the affected countries
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