IDSB06 Lecture 3.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Peter Skrivanic

Lecture 3Tuesday January 25 20111112 AMOrigins of ModernityAfghanistant and the rise of statern schoolsWhy fear a staterun schoolShift from traditional valuesstate becoming modernShift from private to public control of educationReligion and its decay with onset of public schoolsPoliticization of statePoint development is not a neutral apolitical processDevelopment reeks of political ideological undertonesShift in philosophy Roots of modernityEnlightenment Age of reason 17th and beginning of 18th century until French RevolutionFamiliar philosophers such as Kant Locke Voltaire were writing about the context of Europe in that period considered deeply restricted The Kings received the divine right to rule the Church was a source of authority and resistance to dominant institutions would lead to condemnation deep morality can only be articulated and understood through the Church Nobility were the only ones living a good life because stratification was not static Human beings became the masters of the Reason and logic became the way to empower the individual and then societyuniverse God can be understood through our mental faculties Nietzsche wrote his famous God is deadpower of intellect is the key to human progress Western society begins to change Descartes puts man at the center ofrationality and rational civilizations become relevantepistemology we can know everything A mechanistic view of the world now existswe can dictate what a good society isReasonIt is through logic and reason that we arrive at truths1It is through reason that we can control natureunknown2It is through reason that we can decide morality what is right and wrong just and unjust3It is through reason that difficulties can be resolved through advances of science4Thus to emancipate individuals we need to liberate the individualImportant assumptions every individual is capable of infinite perfectibility The only way to achieve this perfectibility and Universal humanityliberate the individual we need to allow reason to dominate and tradition to fall Millyou have to have faith in reasonLiberation of individualReason is saddled with the universal principles of liberty equality freedom and justice for all Kant writes that violationof
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