Summary of Ruling Classes, Ruling Ideas, Ideology and Hegemony*Midterm:
What are the Ruling Classes? What is their importance in media/ Journalism?
The Ideas are not „natural‟, they have social an political origins.
The ideas of the ruling classes are the ruling ideas in any historical epoch.
Media and journalism are the realms of these ideas; journalists participate
in their dissemination.
What does Ideology mea? How is it significant to Journalism?
A body of normative ideas through which one interprets the world.
No one is outside ideological formations, not even journalists.
Ideologies also work as media frames.
What is Hegemony? How is it important to the practice of journalism?
Hegemony means the rule of one group over another group or individual.
Hegemony is power exercised not through violence but leadership and
coercion into the mindset of the group in power.
What are media/news frames? What are the framing effects?
Frames are contextual ones that may influence significantly one‟s ideas,
behaviour or decision outcomes.
Subtle or slight changes in a statement or presentation that leads to one
decision over another possible decision.
Research show that framing effects are not limited to ignorant, less
educated or naïve people; they influence us across social backgrounds.
Types of News Frames:
Episodic News Frames:
They are like case studies, examine specific or concrete events to illustrate
an issue; that they are event orientated.
These frames are more specific, narrowed and tend to focus on the
individual or the individual story.
These frames usually rely on “good pictures” that is close up shots of a
person experiencing emotions; or dramatic pictures of someone coping
with the aftermath of a natural disaster.
Usually the frame begins with the anchor making remarks or introducing
the issues followed by a reporter meeting or observing a concrete person
or event and describing it.
Places the issue in a general and abstract context; like a report directed
at general outcomes and conditions.