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Joub01 Lec3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Joub01 Summary of Ruling Classes, Ruling Ideas, Ideology and Hegemony*Midterm: What are the Ruling Classes? What is their importance in media/ Journalism?  The Ideas are not „natural‟, they have social an political origins.  The ideas of the ruling classes are the ruling ideas in any historical epoch.  Media and journalism are the realms of these ideas; journalists participate in their dissemination. What does Ideology mea? How is it significant to Journalism?  A body of normative ideas through which one interprets the world.  No one is outside ideological formations, not even journalists.  Ideologies also work as media frames. What is Hegemony? How is it important to the practice of journalism?  Hegemony means the rule of one group over another group or individual.  Hegemony is power exercised not through violence but leadership and coercion into the mindset of the group in power. What are media/news frames? What are the framing effects?  Frames are contextual ones that may influence significantly one‟s ideas, behaviour or decision outcomes.  Subtle or slight changes in a statement or presentation that leads to one decision over another possible decision.  Research show that framing effects are not limited to ignorant, less educated or naïve people; they influence us across social backgrounds. Types of News Frames: Episodic News Frames:  They are like case studies, examine specific or concrete events to illustrate an issue; that they are event orientated.  These frames are more specific, narrowed and tend to focus on the individual or the individual story.  These frames usually rely on “good pictures” that is close up shots of a person experiencing emotions; or dramatic pictures of someone coping with the aftermath of a natural disaster.  Usually the frame begins with the anchor making remarks or introducing the issues followed by a reporter meeting or observing a concrete person or event and describing it. Thematic Frame:  Places the issue in a general and abstract context; like a report directed at general outcomes and conditions. 
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