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Linguistics lecture 6October 21, 2010
MORPHOLOGY
·A study of internal structure of words
Morpheme: the smallest unit in a language that carries a meaning or grammatical
function
-Unhappy= un+happy
-Singers= sing+er+s
Free vs. Bound morphemes
·A free morpheme is one which cans stand by itself as an independent word
oHappy, sing, hope
·A bound morpheme is one which cannot stand alone as an independent word; it must
be attached to another morpheme
oUn-, -er, -s, -less
oBound morphemes are written with a hyphen to indicate their bound status
Simple vs. Complex
·Simple words
oSome words consist if a single morpheme
·Complex words
oWords may contain two or more morphemes
Roots vs. Affixes
·Complex words consist of a root morpheme plus one or more affixes
oCompounds are exceptions to this statement
·Root: the morpheme which functions as the major meaning-bearing element in a
word
oA root always belongs to a lexical category e.g. noun (N), verb (V), adjective
(A), or preposition (P)
oNouns typically refer to concrete and abstract things (tree, intelligence,
phone...)
oVerbs tend to denote actions (depart, teach...)
oAdjectives usually name properties (nice, red...)
oPrepositions generally encode spatial relations (in, near...)
·Affix: a morpheme which must be attached to a root (more accurately, a base)
oDo not belong to a lexical category
oAll are bound morphemes
Tree Diagrams
·The internal structure of a word can be represented using a tree diagram
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Morpheme: the smallest unit in a language that carries a meaning or grammatical function. A free morpheme is one which cans stand by itself as an independent word: happy, sing, hope. A bound morpheme is one which cannot stand alone as an independent word; it must be attached to another morpheme: un-, -er, -s, -less, bound morphemes are written with a hyphen to indicate their bound status. Simple words: some words consist if a single morpheme. Complex words: words may contain two or more morphemes. Complex words consist of a root morpheme plus one or more affixes: compounds are exceptions to this statement. Affix: a morpheme which must be attached to a root (more accurately, a base": do not belong to a lexical category, all are bound morphemes. The internal structure of a word can be represented using a tree diagram www. notesolution. com. Base: is the form to which an affix is added.

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