LINA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Nasal Vowel, Palau, Linguistic Universal

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Required reading: o"grady ch. 8 (pdf posted on blackboard) and bring it to the tutorial this week: which tendencies and universals are manifested in the following vowel systems, afrikaans ([y] and [ ] are front rounded vowels) i y u. Tendencies: [i], [a], [u] included in major vowels as these 3 are the most perceptually distinct; [a] is most common; has 9 (normal is 3-9) Universals: all languages have vowels: squamish (british columbia) i u a. Tendencies: [i], [a], [u] included in major vowels, perceptually distinct. Universals: all languages have vowels: implicational universals for vowels. As noted in section 8. 2. 1 (o"grady ch. 8), the presence of long and nasal vowel phonemes is governed by implicational universals. If a language has long vowels, it has short vowels. Long vowels are marked, short vowels are unmarked. If a language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels. Do these consonant systems comply with the implicational universals mentioned in the o"grady.

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