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Lecture 2

LINB20H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: First Language, Gardoqui, Lexical Grammar

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Safieh Moghaddam

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Main points of the first lecture
Define sociolinguistics: variation in language
Sometimes for a linguistic variable there are different variants (ex.
Evening meal  supper/dinner)
- How we define language: linguists, sociolinguists (interested in language in use,
while others are interested in competence), and other linguists
-Difference between languages and dialects (dialects are mutually intelligible but
this is not always the case) ex. Cantonese and Mandarin
-Dialects are regional or social (pronunciation, lexical grammar differences among
-Speech community social network, community of practice
Lecture 02. Thursday, January 14 th
, 2014
American English versus British English
American British
Spelling Spelling words without a
u, color, honor
Spelling words with a u
Colour, honour
Lexical Fries Chips
Grammar Do you have the time? Have you the time?
Pronunciation Butter Butter
* The use of present perfect
British: I’ve lost my keys, I’m looking for them. OR I’ve eaten my lunch.
American: I lost my keys, I’m looking for them. OR I ate my lunch.
*The use of shall and whilst (like while)
How Did English evolve? – Kate Gardoqui on YouTube
The three circles:
Inner circles
Outer circles
Expanding circles
Inner circles (6 countries, Australia, new Zealand, Ireland, Canada Britain, USA)
-First language
Outer circle (India, Pakistan, Singapore, Jamaica, Philippines, Kenya, Ghana, South
-Second language, using it in school
-Historical and governmental importance
Expanding circle (Israel, Taiwan, japan, Korea)
-Learning English as a foreign language
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