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Lecture 4

LINB20H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Standard Language, Socioeconomic Status, Hypercorrection

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Safieh Moghaddam

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Lecture 04. Thursday, January 28 th
, 2016
Social Status
Determining class: low social consensus
Prestige vs. social status:
- Prestige comes from an individuals occupations - and this is what
decides someone’s social status
Socioeconomic status: comes from 3 factors (prestige, power and property) e. a
-Not everyone who has a high prestige has a high socioeconomic status – ex. Teacher
Why do we call it-borrowed prestige: middle class borrows prestige, linguistic
features from the people above them (higher class)
Stigmatized – negatively assessed by society
Ex, “I ain’t do nothing” double negation, judged as a lower class feature
Chambers – categorize people by their social aspirations,
Crossover effect – happens with the 2nd highest class, which is the middle class,
when they speak more formally than the higher class, which results in the
hypercorrection (the over application of a given rule), they are trying to move up
the class ladder
Sociolinguistic markers: aware of it, can be controlled (ex. R-dropping)
Sociolinguistic indicators - All speakers within all classes say the same
Social mobility –
- Motivates everyone to do better
- It’s lost easier to move downward and lose prestige
- More competition with the movement of classes
- If everyone moves to the higher class there won’t be any lower class, and
no one will be doing those jobs
Video notes:
- Moving up the social ladder with a degree
- The American dream
- Anyone can succeed with social mobility
- Horizontal mobility – changing occupations within the same social class
(ex. Nurse accepting another position in a different hospital)
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