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Linguistics lecture notes.docx

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Chandan Narayan

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Linguistics lecture notes Linguistics lecture 1 What is linguisticsScientific of human language and language useWhat humans must know in order to use languageHow languages are structuresHow humans acquire language Scientific study of language Writing is more perfect than speechWomen generally speak better than menMore words u know in a language the better you know the languageStatements are not verifiable they are judgements Seeking truth about languageScience is about verifying the truthIt is possible to verify the truth of facts not of judgements which expresses an opinion What do linguists investigatethe word chef in English is borrowed from Frenchkids need to study in school 2 learn langPhonologyspeech sounds and combinationsMorphologystudy of wordsSyntax word combinations sentences Human language Complex animal communicationSome animals have extremely complex communication systemsSome animals appear to learn human language parrots needs to be taught to be able to talk does not learn passively humans on the other hand learn without being taughtHuman language are1 Rulegoverned2 CreativeHumans dont memorize and repeat words they hear Rules governed creativity ed ruledUShaped development of English past tense formation in childrens English 1 Stage 1Walked played came went 2 Stage 2Walked played comed goed holded kids apply past tense to other word Holded 3 Stage 3 walked played camed wented 4 Stage 4walked played came went heldThe wug test 1 To make plural form off of an unknown noun beforeCreate new verbsmop the floor Linguistic competenceKnowledge that speakers have that enables them to produce and understand their language is called their linguistics competence Descriptive vs prescriptive approachesDescriptiveLinguists take a descriptive approach to language interested in how speakers actually talkPrescriptivehow people should speak Not to describe rules tell them rules they should follow Why do humans have langHumans are hardwired to learn languageEndowed with speciesspecific language facultyIntelligence has nothing to do with language behaviour Areas of linguisticsSemanticsthe interpretation of words and sentencesPhoneticsthe articulation and perception of speech soundsPhonologypatterning of speech sounds Lecture 2Speechsegments Phonesoundsichaving a propertyArticulatory phoneticsProduction of speech soundsHow do we know that we have speech segments o SpoonerismsSlips of the tongue you have tasted wasted my whole worm termAcoustic signals have no boundaries cannot isolate letters joining letters at all time when speakingWhen speaking there is a slight overlap co articulation
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