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Chandan Narayan

LINA01: Lecture 2 May 15, 2012 Exam – heavy on phonetics Question 1. B is to g as p is to k – both bilabial stops ? Phonetics - etic = having the property of & phone = sound - in this course = articulatory phonetics speech and segments - waveform = air fluctuation produced when a word is uttered - how many speech sounds in the e.g. waveform (ban) ? 3 o you automatically segment the word e.g. b – ba – an = ban. - spoonerism = (William Spooner) slips of the tongue; o transfer of a sound in another position in a sentence; o e.g. you have hissed my mystery lecture instead of you have missed my history lecture. o Basic elements of sounds that are stored in your brain. - Co-articulation = overlap in articulatory gestures for different segments - Different waveform from different speakers = but we hear them as the same o Collective phonetic illusion by Edward Sapir Phonetic alphabet - English = not good for orthography? - Speech sounds could be described and symbolized - Henry Higgins; Henry Sweet (1 to develop IPA) English Orthography - different letters may represent a single word - single letter may represent different sounds - combination of letters may represent a single sound - some letters may have no sound at all in certain words - ^ because English is a very promiscuous language = takes on/borrow other languages, hence very malleable  spelling reformers IPA - international phonetic alphabet 1 LINA01: Lecture 2 May 15, 2012 - for this course = focus on the one that is used in English Major vocal organs (textbook) - sagittal section - alveolar ridge – e.g. /t/ or /d/ sound; flesh behind the front teeth - hard palate – bone - soft palate – no bone behind it or velum - wall behind the velum – raised velum = closed and lower velum = open so air can go/exit through your nasal cavity - nasal cavity - uvula - pharynx - epiglottis - larynx - trachea (goes to your lungs) or esophagus (goes to your stomach) - through the trachea up to vocal folds and up through the pharynx and exit through your mouth or nose  language – exploit and control through the velum. - Tongue = tongue tip, blade, front, back 2 LINA01: Lecture 2 May 15, 2012 Types of speech segments - consonants – complete closure or a narrowing of the vocal tract so that there is some obstruction in the flow of air out of the mouth o c
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