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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Lecture 2  Need to know components of words.  Set air in motion and it hits your ear, this is called acoustic. Setting air into motion is articulation. You take the pressure by the articulation and how your ear processes that sound.  Articulation, acoustic and auditory phonetics is 3 important branches in phonetics. WAVEFORM  Y-axis is pressure fluctuation in air caused by the sound.  3 or 4 individual sounds. Visual representation of the word ban.  Hi and My sound are different in your brain that you can move them around. Hi – hissed and my – mystery.  You have a Ta and Wo segment that you can move around.  We anticipate how we are going to shape our mouth and sometimes our brain messed it up and moves it to the wrong place and we get speech errors. WE HEAR THINGS THAT ARE NOT THERE.  K sound is influenced by what is coming further down.  The way we string these segments is there is influence from adjacent segments. WE FAIL TO HEAR THINGS THAT ARE THERE  Physical air hitting your ear on the first word is different from the second.  Yet we still think it’s a b-a-n.  You have extracted from both of these a B like sound, A like sound and N like sound even though they are different. Our brain extracts 3 segments here. WE ARE DIFFERENT FROM ANIMALS  Parrots can decompose they need to imitate the whole word. We store them in our brain and use them later and string them together in different sequences. PHONETIC ALPHABET  We spell things the way they are not pronounced. IPA  International phonetic alphabet. Memorize it.*  Any speech sound can be described using the IPA.  Each symbol has a word accompanying it telling it how to sound.  Learn symbol and vowels in IPA chart vowels.* CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS  Classify language and sounds.  Need dimensionality to classify something.  Nasal sound when making the M sound. Plug nose and try doing it.  Place of articulation is where we find that block in the mouth. It can happen anywhere along the vocal tract.  Voicing can be open or closed. We can block the air with our mouth, teeth, tongue.  Manner of articulation is the type of block you have in your mouth. When you make a T sound, the place of articulation is the alveolar ridge. When you make a S sound, your tongue is close to alveolar ridge but it is a different manner of articulation. CONSONANT CLASSIFICAION: VOICING  Voiceless: when pulled apart you take the vocal cords away. Then air passes through freely. 
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