Place of Articulation
o Labial, closure or near-closure of the lips
o Bilabial, both lips
o Labiodentals, lower lip and upper teeth
o Dental and Interdental
o Dental, the tongue placed against or near the teeth
o Interdental, tongue is placed between the teeth
o Alveolar, small ridge protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth
o Alveolar ridge, may touch or be brought near this ridge
o Alveopalatal and palatal
o Alveopalatal, behind the alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises sharply
o Palate, the highest part of the roof of the mouth
o Velar, the tongue touching or near this position
o Velum, the soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth
o Labiovelar, the glide heard word-initially in wet is called a labiovelar, since the tongue is
raised near the velum and the lips are rounded at the same time.
o The small fleshy flap of tissue known as the uvula hangs down from the velum.
o Sounds made with the tongue near or touching this area are called uvulars.
o English has no uvulars.
o Glottal, sounds produced using the vocal folds as primary articulators
Manners of Articulation
o Stops, made with complete closure in the oral cavity or at the glottis
o Bilabial, dental, alveolar, alveopalatal, palatal, velar, uvular and glottal places of
o Glottal stop is always voiceless.
o Fricatives, consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth. They are
accompanied by a continuous audible noise because the air used in their production passes
through a very narrow opening either at the glottis or in the vocal tract.
Oral or Nasal
o Oral, velum is raised, cutting of the airflow through the nasal passages o Nasal, the velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nasal passages
A stop is a consonant characterized by: (1) complete obstruction of the outgoing airstream by
the articulators, (2) a build up of in