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Chapter 2- Phonetics The Sounds of Language.docx

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Chandan Narayan

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Chapter 2- Phonetics: The Sounds of Language Phonetics- the branch of linguistics that examines the inventory and structure of the sounds of language Phone/speech sound- any sound used in human language  There are a great many speech sounds, but not an finite number of them  Can make sounds with the vocal tract that does not occur in speech  2 ways of approaching phonetics: o Articulatory phonetics- an approach to phonetics that studies the physiological mechanisms of speech production o Acoustic phonetics- an approach to phonetics that is concerned with measuring and analyzing the physical properties of sound waves produced when we speak 2.1- PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) – the universal system for transcribing the sounds of speech, which has been developing since 1888  Attempts to represent each sound of human speech with a single symbol in brackets []  Does not represent the spelling system of a particular language 2.1.1- Units of Representation Segments- individual speech sounds  Produced by coordinating a number of individual articulatory gestures Features (phonetic) - the smallest unit of analysis of phonological structure, combinations of which make up segments 2.1.2- Segments  Segments are individual units of linguistic structure that should be represented individually in a system of transcription 2.2- THE SOUND-PRODUCING SYSTEM  The sound source is in the larynx, where the vocal folds is located  The air supply is provided by the lungs  The filters are the organs above the larynx (the tube of the throat between the larynx and the oral cavity) o Pharynx- the area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx o Oral cavity o Nasal cavity Vocal folds/cords- a set of muscles inside the larynx that may be positioned in various ways to produce different glottal states 1 Vocal tract- the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and pharynx 2.2.1- The Lungs  In order to produce majority of sounds, we take air into the lungs and expel it during speech Intercostals- the muscles between the ribs that help maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production Diaphragm- the large sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen and helps to maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production 2.2.2- The Larynx Trachea (windpipe) – the tube below the larynx through which air travels when it leaves the lungs Larynx (voice box/Adam’s apple) – the box-like structure located in the throat through which air passes during speech production Thyroid cartilage- the cartilage that forms the main portion of the larynx, spreading outward like a head of a plow Cricoid cartilage- the ring-shaped cartilage in the larynx on which the thyroid cartilage rests Arytenoids- two small cartilage in the larynx that are attached to the vocal folds, enabling the vocal folds to drawn together or apart Glottis- the space between vocal folds 2.2.3- Glottal States  4 glottal states: o Voiceless o Voiced o Whisper o Murmur Voiceless Voiceless- the glottal state in which the vocal folds are pulled apart, allowing air to pass directly through the glottis  When saying voiceless consonants, there would be not be any feeling of vibration when touching your fingers to the larynx  The vocal folds are not as far apart during speech voicelessness as they are in silent breathing  [t], [s], [f], [h] 2 Voiced Voiced- the glottal state in which the vocal folds are brought close together, but not tightly closed, causing air passing through them to vibrate  Can sense the vibration of the vocal folds within the larynx Whisper Whisper- the glottal state in which the vocal folds are adjusted so that the front portions are pulled close together, while the back portions are apart  Whisper is voiceless Murmur Murmur/ breathy voice- the glottal state that produces voiced sounds with the voice folds relaxed enough to allow enough air to escape to produce a simultaneous whispery effect 2.3- SOUND CLASSES Class- a group of affixes that (in English) often trigger changes in the consonant or vowel segments of the base and may affect the assignment of stress  3 major classes: o Vowels- sounds that are produced with little obstruction in the vocal tract and that are generally voiced o Consonants- sounds that are produced with a narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract o Glides- sounds that are produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, but move quickly to another articulation 2.3.1- Vowels, Consonants, and Glides  Can be distinguished on the basis of differences in articulation or by their acoustic properties The Articulatory Difference  The airflow is either blocked momentarily or restricted so much that noise is produced as air flows past the constriction  Vowels are usually voiced The Acoustic Difference  Vowels sounds more acoustically powerful than consonants  They are perceive them as louder and longer lasting Syllabic and Non-syllabic Sounds  Vowels (and other syllabic elements) o Are produced with relatively little obstruction in the vocal tract o Are more sonorous 3  Consonants (non-syllabic elements) o Are produced with a complete closure or narrowing of the vocal tract o Are less sonorous Syllable- a unit of linguistics structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it Nucleus- the element around which a syllable is built  Nuclei are usually vowels or diphthongs, but some languages allow certain sonorant consonants to function in this way as well Glides  Shows properties of both consonants and vowels  Produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, but move quickly to another articulation or quickly terminate  Glides pattern like consonants 2.4- CONSONANT ARTICULATION Places/points of articulation- the points at which the airstream can be modified to produce different sounds 2.4.1- The Tongue  5 areas of the tongue: o Tip- the narrow area at the front of the tongue o Blade- the area of the tongue just behind the tip o Body- the main mass of the tongue o Back/dorsum- the body and back of the tongue o Root- the part of the tongue that is contained in the upper part of the throat 2.4.2- Places of Articulation  Each point at which the airstream can be modified to produce a different sound Labial Labial- a place feature that characterizes sounds articulated with one or both lips Bilabial- sounds made with closure or near closure of the lips Labiodentals- sounds involving the lower lip and upper teeth Dental and Interdental Dentals- sounds made with the tongue placed against or near the teeth 4 Interdentals- sounds made with the tongue placed between the teeth Alveolar Alveolar ridge- the small ridge that protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth Alveopalatal and Palatal Alveopalatal/palatoalveolar- the area just behind the alveolar ridge where the roof of the mouth rises sharply Palate- the highest part of the roof of the mouth Palatals- sounds produced with the tongue on or near the palate Velar  The primary place of articulation and labial is a secondary place of articulation Velum- the soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth Velar- sounds made with the tongue touching or near the velum Labiovelar- sounds made with the tongue raised near the velum and the lips rounded at the same time Uvular Uvula- the small fleshy flap of tissue that hangs down from the velum Uvulars- sounds made with the tongue near or touching the uvula Pharyngeal Pharyngeals- sounds made through the modification of airflow in the pharynx by retracting the tongue or constricting the pharynx Glottal Glottals- sounds produced by using the vocal folds as the primary articulators 2.5- MANNERS OF ARTICULATION Manners of articulation- the various configurations produced by positioning the lips, tongue velum, and glottis in different ways 2.5.1- Oral versus Nasal Phones Oral sounds- sounds produced with the velum raised and the airflow through the nasal passage cut off 5 Nasal sounds- sounds produced by lowering the velum, allowing air to pass through the nasal passages 2.5.2- Stops Stops- sounds made with a complete and momentary closure of airflow through the vocal tract  Found in all places of articulation 2.5.3- Fricatives Fricatives- non-sonorant consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth, accompanied by a continuous audible noise Continuants- sounds that are produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth English Fricatives  [s] and [z] can be produced in 2 ways o Some speakers raise the tongue tip to the alevelor ridge (or to just behind the upper front teeth) and allow the air to pass through a grooved channel in the tongue o Others form this same channel using the blade of the tongue (the tip placed behind the lower front teeth) 2.5.4- Affricates Affricates- non-continuant consonants that show a slow release of the closure  English only has 2 affricates Strid
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