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Chapter 3- Phonology Contrasts and Patterns.docx

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Chandan Narayan

Chapter 3- Phonology: Contrasts and Patterns Phonology- the system of contrasts and patterns involving speech sounds  Takes place in 3 levels: o Segments- individual speech sounds o Syllables- a unit of linguistics structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it o Features- the smallest unit of analysis of phonological structure, combinations of which make up segments 3.1- SEGMENTS  The difference between [n] and [ŋ+ is easy to notice  e i e ence et een *n+ an *n+is much less obvious  Some sounds contrast with each other in that they can be used to distinguish between words, ut some on’t 3.1.1- Minimal Pairs Minimal pair- 2 words with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment in the same position  Established on the basis of sound and not spelling Minimal pair test- examining if 2 segments belong in different phonemes 3.1.2- Complementary Distribution  Non-cont astive i e ences in p onunciation typically a ise en a soun ’s a ticulation is affected by its neighbour, so that it has one pronunciation in one position/environment and another pronunciation in other environments Environment- the phonetic context in which a sound occurs Complementary distribution- the situation in which 2 or more sounds occur in non-overlapping, mutually exclusive environments Obstruent- any non-sonorant consonant: fricatives, affricates, oral stops 3.1.3- Phonemes and Allophones Phoneme- a class of phonetically similar sounds that do not contrast with each other (//) Allophones- the sounds that make up a phoneme ([])  Usually in complementary distribution and phonetically similar 3.1.4- Differences in Phonemes across Languages  Sounds that contrast with each other in one language might not do so in another 1 3.1.5- Two Things to Watch For Near-minimal pairs- 2 words that contain differences other than the one involving the key contrasts  The extra differences must not involve sounds right next to the contrast  Not available to establish that 2 sounds contrast with each other 3.1.6- Classes and Generalizations in Phonology  One of the major goals of phonological description is the discovery of such broad patterns of variation, and the formulation of general statements to describe them Canadian Raising  When the vowel portion of the diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ raises to /ʌ/ in certain positions 3.1.7- Differences in the Distribution of Allophones across Languages  Common for words to be nasalized when they occur near nasal consonants in English  Some languages have words that are nasalized when they occur right before or right after a nasal consonant 3.1.8- Phonetic and Phonemic Representations  Phonemic representation corresponds to what is in your head  Phonetic representation corresponds to what comes out of your mouth Mid Vowels and Glides in English  Sometimes it is possible to predict not only the choice of allophones in the phonetic representation, but also the appearance of entirely new segment  A mid tens e is followed by a glide that has the same backness and roundness 3.2- SYLLABLES  A dot is used to mark the boundary between 2 syllables 3.2.1- Types of Syllable Patterns  CV  consist of a consonant followed by a vowel  V consist of a vowel  VC  consist of a vowel followed by a consonant  CVC  consist of a consonant followed by a vowel followed by a consonant 3.2.2- The Structure of Core Syllables Core syllables- a syllable that complies with the Sonority Requirement and the Binarity Requirement  Nucleus (N) – the element around which a syallble is built o Usually vowels or diphthongs, but some languages allow certain sonorant consonants to function in this way  Onset (O) – the consituent of a syallble that immediately precedes the nucleus 2  Coda (C) – the constituent of a syallble that immediately follows the nucleus Nucleus Rhyme σ (Syllable) Coda Onset  The Sonority Requirement- the requirement that sonority within a core syllable rises before the nucleus and declines after the nucleus 0 1 2 3 4 Obstruent Nasal Liquid Glide Vowel  The Binarity Requirement- the requirement that within core syllables, onsets and codas have no more than 2 constituents 3.2.3- Non-Core Syllables  ‘Ext a’ consonants ten to occu at o e ges (eit e at t e eginning o t e en )  Only /s/ se ve as an ‘ext a’ consonant in onsets  In co a position, t e ‘ext a’ consonant is al ays voiceless an ma e it t e tip o t e tongue  The extra coda consonant is not an inherent part of the word, but added as a grammatical ending (suffix) 3.2.4- Timing and Syllables Timing tier- a level within the representation of a syllable at which the relative length of individual segments is represented (X)  Can also be used to distinguish between tense vowels and diphthongs, and lax vowels  Short vowels (tense vowel, diphthongs)  single timing tier  Long vowels (lax vowels)  2 timing tier 3.2.5- A Procedure for Setting up Syllables 1. Nucleus identification a. Identify all nuclei (including consonants), and project a rhyme and syllable for each 2. Onset identification a. Mark a single consonant to the left of each nucleus as onset, if there is one 3. Onset maximization a. If the consonant of the left side of each onset less sonorant, then the one that is already in the onset, add it to the onset 4. Coda identification a. Use the remaining consonants to build codas that are compatible with the binarity and sonority requirements 5. Appendix consonants a. If there is a non-core syllable, the left-over consonants are added in appendix positions 3 3.2.6- Syllable-Based Phonology Aspiration in English  English
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