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LINA01, Chapter 2, Introduction to Linguistic Analysis

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE [1] TO USE LANGUAGE - do not need to speak to use it - can be - written - manually signed - mechanically reprod'ed - syn'zed by computers w/ some success SPEECH - still is main way that humans express themselves via lang - it was what was used by our species before ability to write arose - anatomical specialization for speech gives us idea of long history behind human speech - there exists neural mchsms in humans for peception of speech sounds PHONETICS [D] = branch of linguistics that examines the complete list of sounds, and the structures of sounds of speech [2] [D] PHONES (aka [D] SPEECH SOUNDS) = any sound used in human lang - finite list of them - portion of entire set found in any human lang - any human, child or adult can learn to prod. any human speech sound - about 600 consonants and 200 vowels - sounds prod'ed using vocal cord may be ones not present in speech - ex. sound made by sticking tongue out and blowing hard across it [3] TWO APPROACHES TO PHONETICS ARTICULATORY PHONETICS (emphasis of this ACOUSTIC PHONETICS chap) [D] = studies physiol. mcshms of speech prod'ion [D] = focus on measuring & analyzing phys prop's of sound waves prod'ed when we speak - both are needed to understand speech p15 2.1 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION [1] [D] INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) = best-known universal sys. known so far for transcribing sounds of speech - dvping since 1888 => still additions are being made to it - attempts to rep. each sound of human speech w/ single symbol - enclosed in [ ] to indicate that transcription is phonetic, and does not rep. spelling sys. of any specific lang (ex) [] = eth (as in weather) - sound spelled th in English this is transcribed as above symbol - this symbol is used by IPA to rep. sound in whichever lang it is heard ===[LANGUAGE MATTERS: SOUNDS AND SPELLING]==== [1] - diff. b/ween IPA and writing sys of English: - IPA has one-to-one correspondence b/ween sound and symbol (ex) [] stands for eth as in weather or this (ex-English) rough, through, bough though, cough - all have -ough ending, but letters rep. diff. sounds for each word [2] George Bernard Shaw - claimed that Eng word ghoti can be pronounced as fish - how? - look at pronounciations of following words: enough slip of the tongue phenomenon (ex) instead of saying welcome mat, you say melcome wat - suggests that segments are individual units of linguistic structure & should be rep'ed individually in sys. of transcrip. [3] 2. relative unchanging of speech sounds in human lang - also suggests that segmental phonetic transcrip. is well-motivated way of transcribing speech - impossible to rep. all variants of human speech sounds, b/c no one person says same sound exactly - the same way twice - the same as another person - but sounds of speech remain unchanging from one lang to another s.t. can transcribe them consistently - transcribe = put into written form (ex) p sound - same whether u look at English or nanother lang - same symbol is used b/c there is v.little diff. as to how the effort is to made to pronounce it, and thus the sounds are not diff. enough to have diff. symbol - ex. Eng speaker: presses lips together - ex. russian speaker: does same thing but slightly inward (ex) but compare t and p sound - sounds prod'ed sufficiently distinct from each other s.t. they are transcribed w/ sep. symbols (and not just one symbol to rep. both) p17 2.2 THE SOUND-PRODUCING SYSTEM [1] SOUND - prod'ed when air set in motion SPEECH PROD'ION MCHSM (Fig 2.1, p17) - think of it as made up of: a) air supply - provided by LUNGS = source of moving air b) sound source that sets air in motion in ways particularly relevant to speech prod'ion = larynx >- loc. here are [D] VOCAL FOLDS (OR VOCAL CORDS) = set of muscles inside larynx that can po. in various ways to prod. diff glottal states c) set of filters that changes sound in various ways = organs above larynx 1) PHARYNX = tube of throat b/ween larynx & oral cavity 2) ORAL CAVITY 3) NASAL CAVITY ^- 1, 2, 3 = [D] VOCAL TRACT --> 2.2.1 LUNGS [1] - take air into lungs, then expel during speech - req. to prod. majority of sounds in lang's - while air is flowing into vocal tract, have small number of phones prod'ed [2] - certain lvl of air P req. to keep speech mchsm fcning steadily - P maintained by diff. sets of muscles that intervene during utterance - both of the major muscles below do the same fcn: - help maintain air P necess. for speech prod'ion --> 1. INTERCOSTALS [D] = muscles b/ween ribs - raises ribcage to permit air to flow into lungs during inhalation --> 2. DIAPHRAGM [D] = large muscular sheet that sep's abdomen from chest cavity - he;ps control rel. of air during exhalation for speech so that we can speak for reasonable 't' period b/ween breaths --- glottis |gltis| noun the part of the larynx consisting of the vocal cords and the slitlike opening between them. It affects voice modulation through expansion or contraction. --- --> 2.2.1 THE LARYNX [1]
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